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Murree, Pakistan

Saleem B.A.,Curtin University Australia | Saleem B.A.,Hill Fruit Research Station | Hassan I.,Curtin University Australia | Hassan I.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | And 5 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2014

Creasing is a physiological disorder in navel oranges and causes serious economic losses. In 2007, the comparative changes in rheological properties of the rind, levels of starch, phenolics, pectins and the activity of pectinesterase (PE) in albedo and flavedo tissues of the healthy and the creased fruit of 'Washington Navel' and 'Navelina' sweet orange at ripe stage were investigated. During 2009, dynamics of the activities of PE, exo and endo polygalacturonase (exo-PG, endo-PG), and endo-1, 4-ß -D-glucanase (EGase) enzymes in albedo and flavedo tissues of the healthy as well as the creased 'Washington Navel' sweet orange fruit at different maturation and ripening stages were researched. The rind hardness, stiffness and tensile force were substantially lower in the creased fruit than the healthy ones in 'Washington Navel' and 'Navelina'. The levels of starch, total phenolics, total pectins and water insoluble pectins decreased in the albedo and flavedo of the creased than the healthy fruit in both the cultivars. The levels of water soluble pectins increased in the albedo and flavedo of the creased fruit when compared to the healthy ones in both the cultivars. The activities of PE in albedo and flavedo tissues were higher in the creased fruit when compared to the healthy fruit of 'Washington Navel' and 'Navelina' in 2007. The activities of PE, exo and endo PG and Endo-1, 4-ß -D-glucanase were higher in the albedo tissue of creased fruit of 'Washington Navel' orange at different fruit maturation and ripening stages. In conclusion, the higher activities of pectinesterase, exo- polygalacturonase, endo- polygalacturonase, and endo-1, 4-ß -D-glucanase in the albedo of creased fruit at commercial harvest seem to be associated with the enhanced loss of pectins and starch in the cell walls of albedo tissue, leading to cell wall loosening and cracks formation consequently reducing hardness, stiffness and tensile force of the rind. Source


Khan A.S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Gul Khan M.R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Malik A.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saleem B.A.,Hill Fruit Research Station | Ahmad I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

The study was undertaken to determine the influence of defoliation and deblossoming on the vegetative and reproductive growth of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. 'Gola' tree. Twenty guava trees of uniform size and age with five treatments replicated four times were selected for the experiment. Defoliation and deblossoming was done manually at different levels [0% defoliation + 0% deblossoming, 100% defoliation + 100% deblossoming, 50% defoliation + 50% deblossoming, 0% defoliation + 50% deblossoming, and 0% defoliation + 100% deblossoming] by using pruning scissor in the last week of April. The data regarding number of leaves, leaf drop percentage and fruit growth was taken at 15 days interval during the whole study period, while leaf age was recorded at the end of the experiment. Fruit yield was determined at harvest separately for summer as well as winter crop. Defoliation and deblossoming significantly affected the number of leaves and leaf drop percentage. Maximum numbers of leaves were recorded in the trees subjected to 100% defoliation + 100% deblossoming. Minimum leaf drop was observed in the trees subjected to 50% defoliation + 50% deblossoming. Leaf age was found to be significantly higher in trees treated with 0% defoliation + 50% deblossoming level in contrast to other treatments. Fruit set % was significantly higher in the control trees during summer crop. The interactions for fruit length, diameter and size between different levels of defoliation and deblossoming, and fruit growing period were significantly higher during summer crop than winter crop. Trees subjected to 0% defoliation + 50% deblossoming exhibited higher fruit length, diameter and size than other treatments. In conclusion, defoliation and deblossoming had a significant impact on the vegetative and reproductive growth of guava cv. 'Gola'. The results suggested that the defoliation has negative impact on the reproductive growth of guava and deblossoming can be used effectively without defoliation to encourage the winter crop. Source


Shafique M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan A.S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Malik A.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Shahid M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

The study was undertaken to determine the influence of pollen sources and pollination frequency on fruit drop, yield and quality of date palm cv. 'Dhakki'. Three 'Dhakki' female trees and three different male trees (M-1, M-2 and M-3) were selected for the experiment. On each female tree six spathes were chosen and were pollinated with pollens collected from one of the selected male parent. Out of six, three spathes were pollinated once and other three were pollinated twice (second pollination was done two days after first pollination). Data were collected for physico-chemical characteristics of the fruit including fruit drop, fruit weight, flesh weight, seed weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), TSS: TA ratio, sugars, level of ascorbic acid and total phenols. The results indicated that pollen source significantly affected the fruit drop percentage as minimum fruit drop was observed from the tree pollinated with M-3. Physical properties of the fruit like fruit weight, flesh weight and seed weight were significantly improved with pollination from M-1 compared to other male trees. After harvest chemical quality parameters like TSS and TSS: TA ratio, ascorbic acid contents, and reducing sugars were highest in fruit pollinated with M-3 and M-2 respectively. Whereas lowest level of TA was recorded in fruits pollinated with M-3. Pollen source and number of pollinations did not significantly affect the level of total phenols in the date palm fruit. Total and non-reducing sugars were significantly higher in the fruit pollinated twice. In conclusion, the pollen source had significant impact on the physicochemical properties of date palm cv. 'Dhakki'. The results suggested that best pollen source (male trees) should be selected for their respective female trees to get most desired characteristics. Source


Jabbar A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Malik A.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saeed M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Malik O.H.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2011

A late maturing (End Aug to Mid Sept) Pakistani mango cv. Sufaid Chaunsa has high export potential, particularly in neighboring markets of Iran and China. However, market access is conditional with hot water (HW) phytosanitary treatment protocol for disinfestation of fruit fly as agreed with both countries (Iran: HW dip at 45°C for 75 min; China: HW dip at 48°C for 60 min). Objectives of present studies were to evaluate the effect of obligatory market access protocols on Sufaid Chaunsa mangoes; and to optimize storage temperature (10 & 12°C) under the prospective of shipping the treated mangoes to these countries. For this purpose, uniform mature mangoes were subjected to hot water treatment (HWT) at 45 and 48°C for 75 and 60 min, respectively. Some more fruit were also subjected to HWT of 48°C for 60 min with additional dip of hot carbendazim (40 g/100 L) at 52°C for 5 min. Non-treated fruit were considered as control. Treated fruit were divided into two equal lots and stored at 10 and 12°C (80-85% RH). During storage, fruit peel color and softness were recorded on 21, 27 and 32 days, while disease development, physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics were assessed at ripe stage. Fruit subjected to HWT (48°C for 60 min) with additional treatment of hot carbendazim (40 g/100 L) at 52°C for 5 min were more firm and had higher levels of total sugars as compared to the fruit of other treatments. Higher fruit peel color development score (after 21, 27 & 32 days of storage) and higher total carotenoid levels (at ripe stage) were recorded in fruit stored at 12°C, irrespective of HW treatment effect. Higher titratable acidity was recorded in fruit subjected to HWT at 45°C for 75 min at 10°C storage. Among organolaptic characteristics, better pulp color score with better taste, texture and aroma was recorded in fruit stored at 10°C by the taste panel. HW treated fruit showed lesser anthracnose incidence as compared to fruit with no treatment. In conclusion, HW phytosanitary protocols for export of mango to Iran and China had no negative effect on fruit quality attributes of cv. Sufaid Chaunsa; and 10°C was found as the better shipping temperature. However, control of diseases especially stem end rot is critical and aroma volatile production warrants further research for successful sea shipments for export of this cultivar. © 2011 Friends Science Publishers. Source


Khan A.S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad N.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Malik A.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saleem B.A.,Hill Fruit Research Station | Rajwana I.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2011

Seven grape varieties ('Black Prince', 'Gold', 'Dehkani', 'Cardinal', 'Shamas Guru', 'King's Early' & 'Anab-e-Shahi') were evaluated for their pheno-physiological characteristics grown under the agro-climatic conditions of Faisalabad. 'Anab-e-Shahi', 'King's Early', 'Dehkani' and 'Cardinal' were observed as late maturing varieties and thus become un-suitable for cultivation in Punjab due to early occurrence of monsoon rains. The varieties 'Black Prince', 'Dehkani' and 'Shamas Guru' exhibited early fruit maturity and ripening. The vines of 'Black Prince' acquired minimum days from bud sprout to ripening (77 days) as compared to all other varieties. Berries of variety 'Shamas Guru' exhibited highest weight (4.5 g) followed by 'Black Prince' (2.86 g) and 'Gold' (2.5 g). 'Anab-e-Shahi' produced highest bunch weight (490.12 g) and yield (14.9 kg per vine) as compared to all other varieties. Maximum number of bunches per vine were exhibited by 'Gold' (41) and minimum in 'Cardinal' (24). The berries of 'Black Prince' exhibited highest soluble solids concentration (SSC) (23.5%), SSC: titratable acidity (TA) ratio (99.3) and lowest TA (0.24%) as compared to all other varieties. The varieties 'Cardinal' and 'Shamas Guru' produced barries with maximum amount of ascorbic acid (23.3 mg 100 g -1) and total sugars (13.83%), respectively. 'Black Prince' being early maturing variety with large berry size, loose bunch and better SSC: TA ratio is a potential tablegrape variety to be cultivated under the agro-climatic conditions of Faisalabad. © 2011 Friends Science Publishers. Source

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