Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center

Himachal Pradesh, India

Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center

Himachal Pradesh, India
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Hooda K.S.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Khokhar M.K.,Campus Management | Shekhar M.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Karjagi C.G.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection | Year: 2017

Turcicum leaf blight of maize caused by the fungus Setosphaeria turcica is a serious foliar disease of maize distributed widely throughout the world and causing significant yield losses. The disease is more prevalent in humid weather with temperature between 20–28 °C and causes small cigar-shaped lesions to complete destruction of the foliage. Though there are several management practices available, identification and deployment of host plant resistance is a pragmatic approach to control the disease. However, qualitative resistance is unstable and breaks down easily by emergence of new races of the pathogen in maize necessitating the development of durable TLB resistant cultivars. Application of modern molecular tools and availability of high-density molecular marker data are expected to accelerate efforts to develop resistant hybrids. This review provides a focuses on current status, and future research needs especially biological control and sustainable integrated management strategies of TLB. © 2016, Deutsche Phythomedizinische Gesellschaft.

Changan S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Chaudhary D.P.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Chaudhary D.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar S.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | And 17 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

A set of 100 inbred lines comprising of 50 normal and 50 quality protein maize (QPM) were analyzed for carotenoids composition such as total carotenoids, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin. Seven QPM {HKI-3-4-8-6, HKI 34(1+2)-1, HKI 164-4(1-3), NP-06-07R-76-8, NP-06-07R-80-6, LQPM-42 and LQPM-40} and 9 normal lines {DML-288, DML-2, DML-112, DML-309, DML-45, BAJIM-08-27, BAJIM-13-1, HKI 1105 and HKI 1155} were found to possess significantly higher carotenoids as compared to the check (DMRQPM 103). Kernel colour intensity and total carotenoid contents showed highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.491∗∗), whereas no significant correlation was observed between kernel colour and β-carotene (r = 0.014). Based on the carotenoids studied, a set of 16 lines {HKI-3-4-8-6, HKI 34(1+2)-1, HKI 164-4(1-3), NP-06-07R-76-8, NP-06-07R-80-6, LQPM-42, LQPM-40, DML-288, DML-2, DML-112, DML-309, DML-45, BAJIM-08-27, BAJIM-13-1, HKI 1105 and HKI 1155} was identified as promising lines which can effectively be utilized in the future breeding programmes towards the development of nutritionally improved maize (Zea mays L.).

Bhartiya A.,ICAR Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan | Aditya J.P.,ICAR Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan | Kumari V.,CSKHPKV | Kishore N.,Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2017

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is major oilseed crop globally. It is grown in diverse agro-ecological conditions and the performance of quantitative traits often varies due to significant genotype × environment interaction (GEI) therefore, the integration of yield and stability is one of the common objective of soybean breeding. The present investigation was carried out to study genotype × environment interaction (GEI) through GGE biplot and AMMI analysis over four environments (Majhera, Palampur, Bajaura and Almora) with 32 genetically diverse genotypes for four traits viz., grain yield, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and 100 seed weight under rainfed condition of North Western Himalayan hills using randomised complete block design. The analysis of variance revealed that environments (E), genotypes (G) and genotype × environment interactions (GEI) accounted about 19.61%, 26.18% and 40.71% of the total variation, respectively. GGE biplot graphically displayed interrelationships between test locations as well as genotypes and facilitated visual comparisons through two-dimensional biplot between the first two principal components (PCI and PCII) which explained 74.40% variation for grain yield, 91.98% for days to 50% flowering, 83.27% for days to maturity and 84.68% for 100 seed weight. The GGE biplot suggested suitability of all the four test locations to be used for multilocation trials on the basis of discrimination ability and representativeness. Genotypes, 'C 17' ('PS 1556;') was found the best performing genotypes in terms of grain yield followed by 'C 11' ('VLS 89'), 'C 4' ('PS 1550') and 'C 10' ('DS 3102') whereas, in terms of high grain yield and stability both 'C 11' ('VLS 89') was found as the ideal genotype. In the test locations Majhera, Palampur and Almora, winning genotypes for grain yield were 'C 17' ('PS 1556') and 'C 11' ('VLS 89') while, 'C 34' ('VLS 59') was the winning genotype at Bajaura. © 2017, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.

Kumar B.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Guleria S.K.,Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Khanorkar S.M.,Anand Agricultural University | Dubey R.B.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | And 15 more authors.
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2016

Drought stress is the most important production constraint in maize (Zea mays L.), especially in rainfed agriculture. To improve productivity of rainfed maize, the development of hybrids with tolerance to drought stress is an important objective in maize breeding programs. The present study was undertaken to identify maize hybrids that perform better under drought-stress and drought-free conditions by using various selection indices. These selection indices were calculated on the basis of yield (tha-1) performance of hybrids measured under drought stress and optimum environments. A set of 38 cultivars was evaluated at 10 environments (representing five each of drought stress and optimum growing conditions). The average reduction in grain yield due to drought stress was 52%. Effects of genotype, environment and their interaction were significant sources of variation in determining grain yield, respectively explaining 5.0-7.4%, 55.0-60.2% and 12.0-15.0% of total variation in yield under drought-stress and drought-free conditions. Of eight selection indices considered for study, three indices such as harmonic mean, geometric mean, and stress tolerance index were identified as suitable for selection of genotypes capable of performing well both under drought-stress and drought-free environments. Drought response index and drought resistance index were found useful in identifying hybrids that performed better under drought stress. Stress susceptibility index was negatively correlated with yield measured under drought stress. Stress susceptibility index could be used as selection index but only in combination with yield performance data under water-deficit conditions in order to identify drought-tolerant hybrids with reasonable productivity. Test weight, shelling percentage, days to maturity, and ear girth were found to be useful traits for improving yield performance across diverse environments. Cultivation of identified drought-tolerant hybrids would be useful to enhance maize productivity in drought-stress environments. © 2016 CSIRO.

Singh M.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Bisht I.S.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Dutta M.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Kumar K.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | And 7 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2014

Systematic characterization and evaluation of the wild gene pool for breeding purposes is a common practice in an increasing number of cultivated crop species. Substantial yield improvement of cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) has been limited by the loss of useful genes for higher yield and lack of resistance to major biotic stresses. In the present study, a total of 88 wild accessions of six annual Cicer species viz., C. reticulatum Ladizinsky, C. echinospermum P.H. Davis, C. judaicum Boiss., C. pinnatifidum Jarb. & Spach, C. bijugum Rech. f., and C. yamashitae Kitam., along with three check varieties (controls) of cultivated chickpea namely, Pusa 256, Pusa 1103, and JG 11, were characterized and evaluated for phenological and agro-morphological traits, including their reaction to the major fungal diseases [Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr. and Botrytis gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex. Fr.] and root knot nematode (Meliodogyne incognita). Wild Cicer accessions exhibited variation for some morphological traits, including plant pigmentation in C. reticulatum, C. judaicum, and C. pinnatifidum; number of leaflets leaf-1 in C. reticulatum, C. echinospermum, C. judaicum, C. pinnatifidum, and C. bijugum; and seed color in C. reticulatum, C. judaicum, and C. pinnatifidum. Likewise, variation for agro-morphological traits was also studied, that is, earliness, number of branches plant-1, and number of pods plant-1, etc. Some of these were comparable with the cultivated genotypes. Pattern of within-species diversity was also estimated using Ward's Minimum Variance Dendrogram and principal components analysis for important agro-morphological traits. Among the wild Cicer species, C. judaicum and C. pinnatifidum had the greatest number of resistant accessions including multiple resistance for Ascochyta blight, Botrytis gray mold, and root knot nematode. Variability among wild annual Cicer accessions is invaluable and can be exploited following introgression into cultivated chickpea. It will also help in the flow of useful genes from the wild to the cultivated gene pool and generating additional variation for use in chickpea improvement © Crop Science Society of America.

Dhanbir S.,Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center
Pestology | Year: 2011

Field experiments were conducted during kharif(wet) seasons, 2006,2007 and 2008 to evaluate the relative efficacy of fungicides against brown leaf spot of paddy caused by Helminthosporium oryzae under natural infection conditions. Two sprays of Tilt 25 EC @ 0.1% (propiconazole), started 45 days after transplanting and 20 days thereafter i.e. 65 days of transplanting, were highly effective in containing brown leaf spot intensity and significantly improving grain yield over other test fungicides. This fungicide also gave maximum ICBR (1:5.23).

Singh D.,Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Singh A.,Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Sharma S.,Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center
Pestology | Year: 2012

Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe graminis f.sp.tritici is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat in all the wheat growing areas of HP causes 20% loss in grain yield. For the management of this disease, five fungicides were evaluated as foliar sprays under field conditions at the Experimental Farm of HAREC, Dhaulakuan. Two sprays of propiconazole were found highly effective in reducing powdery mildew intensity and resulted in highest grain yield as compared to recommended fungicides carbendazim and karathane. Propiconazole also gave highest ICBR of 1:2.58. This fungicide has been recommended as a good substitute of carbendazim (Bavistin) and Karathane for the control of powdery mildew of wheat.

Singh D.,Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Sharma S.,Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center
Pestology | Year: 2013

Flag smut of wheat caused by Urocystis tritici is an emerging disease of wheat in the Northern India. The disease is particularly serious in dry soil under restricted irrigation conditions causing economical losses in terms of grain yield. Loose smut caused by Ustilago nuda tritici is an internally seed borne disease causing serious grain losses. For the management of these diseases, six fungicidal treatments were evaluated as seed treatment with field conditions at the Experimental Farm of CSKHPKV, HAREC, Dhaulakuan. Seed treatment of tebuconazole 060 FS @ 0.333 g/kg seed resulted in cent percent control of flag and loose smut, and gave highest grain yield as compare to recommended fungicides carbendazim, vitavax and raxil 2 DS. Vitavax @ 2.5 g/kg seed also resulted in complete control of loose smut, however, it did not gave satisfactory control of flag smut. None of the tested fungicides showed phytotoxicity. Tebuconazole 060 FS could be recommended as a good substitute of carbendazim, vitavax and raxil 2 DS as it gave complete control of both flag smut and loose smut of wheat.

Pande S.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Sharma M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Gaur P.M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Basandrai A.K.,Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Center | And 6 more authors.
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Ascochyta blight (AB) caused by Ascochyta rabei (Pass.) Labr. is one of the most important constraints that limits the productivity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The absence of high levels of stable resistant sources to the pathogen has necessitated the continued search and identification of new sources of resistance. The main aim of this work was to identify new sources of resistance to AB and validate their stability across multi-environments. A collection of 424 elite chickpea genotypes were evaluated for AB resistance under controlled environmental conditions in 2005-2006 at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India. Fifty-one genotypes with AB severity ≤3.0 (based on the 1-9 scale) were selected for a second round of evaluation in 2006-2007 at ICRISAT. Based on the results obtained during both years, an Ascochyta Blight Nursery (ABN) was established to evaluate the selected 29 chickpea genotypes, including 4 germplasm lines, 24 breeding lines and a highly susceptible line. The nursery was evaluated at 3 locations (Almora, Dhaulakuan and Ludhiana) in India over three crop seasons (2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010) and under controlled environment conditions at ICRISAT to further confirm the stable performance of these genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant effects of year, location (year), genotype and genotype × location (year) interaction. The genotype and genotype × environment (GGE) biplot analyses of multi-environment data showed that resistance of five genotypes (EC 516934, ICCV 04537, ICCV 98818, EC 516850 and EC 516971) had mean disease severity ≤3.0 on the 1-9 scale and the reactions were consistent across the environments. Genotype EC 516934 was found resistant to AB at the seedling stage in the controlled environment at ICRISAT. The remaining genotypes showed moderately resistant reaction (3.0-5.0) to AB under controlled environment conditions. A significant positive correlation was found between the performance of the genotypes under controlled environment and field screening conditions (r = 0.70; P < 0.01). The resistant genotypes identified in the present study would be useful in breeding programs as stable resistant donors to evolve agronomically desirable AB resistant varieties. © 2013 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

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