Hikiiwa Park Center

Wakayama-shi, Japan

Hikiiwa Park Center

Wakayama-shi, Japan
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Furuno K.,Yamaguchi University | Lee K.,Cetacean Research Institute | Itoh Y.,Yamaguchi University | Suzuki K.,Hikiiwa Park Center | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

The genus Borrelia comprises arthropod-borne bacteria, which are infectious agents in vertebrates. They are mainly transmitted by ixodid or argasid ticks. In Hokkaido, Japan, Borrelia spp. were found in deer and Haemaphysalis ticks between 2011 and 2013; however, the study was limited to a particular area. Therefore, in the present study, we conducted largescale surveillance of ticks and wild animals in the western part of the main island of Japan. We collected 6,407 host-seeking ticks from two regions and 1,598 larvae obtained from 32 engorged female ticks and examined them to elucidate transovarial transmission. In addition, we examined whole blood samples from 190 wild boars and 276 sika deer, as well as sera from 120 wild raccoons. We detected Borrelia spp. in Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis megaspinosa, Haemaphysalis kitaokai, Haemaphysalis longicornis, and Haemaphysalis formosensis. In addition, we isolated a strain from H. megaspinosa using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium. The minimum infection rate of ticks was less than 5%. Transovarial transmission was observed in H. kitaokai. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolated strain and DNA fragments amplified from ticks identified at least four bacterial genotypes, which corresponded to the tick species detected. Bacteria were detected in 8.4%, 15%, and 0.8% of wild boars, sika deer, and raccoons, respectively. In this study, we found seasonal differences in the prevalence of bacterial genotypes in sika deer during the winter and summer. The tick activity season corresponds to the season with a high prevalence of animals. The present study suggests that a particular bacterial genotype detected in this study are defined by a particular tick species in which they are present. © 2017 Furuno et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Sato S.,Nihon University | Kabeya H.,Nihon University | Yoshino A.,Nihon University | Sekine W.,Nihon University | And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Bartonella quintana bacteremia was detected in 6 (13.3%) of 45 wild-caught Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed that Japanese macaques were infected with a new and specific B. quintana sequence type. Free-ranging Japanese macaques thus represent another natural reservoir of B. quintana. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

PubMed | NPO Shikoku Institute of Natural History, Hikiiwa Park Center, Yamaguchi University and Wildlife Management Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of helminthology | Year: 2014

Male dimorphism of the subfamily Ostertagiinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) is a well-known phenomenon, and two or more morphotypes of a single species have previously been described as different species. Two Spiculopteragia spp., S. houdemeri (syn. S. yamashitai) and S. andreevae (syn. Rinadia andreevae) recorded in Asian cervids and wild bovids, are considered to represent major and minor morphs of S. houdemeri, respectively, based solely on their co-occurrence in the same host individual along with monomorphic females. In this study, males of morph houdemeri (=S. houdemeri) and morph andreevae (=S. andreevae) as well as females with three different vulval ornamentations were collected from sika deer (Cervus nippon) and Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus) distributed on the mainland of Japan. Morphologically characterized worms were subjected to molecular genetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of mitochondrial DNA. Of 181 collected sika deer, 177 (97.8%) and 73 (40.3%) deer harboured males of morphs houdemeri and andreevae, respectively. Worm numbers of the former morph were found to range between 1 and 444 per individual, whereas only 1-25 worms per individual were detected for the latter morph. Five out of six serows harboured 47-71 or 2-9 males of morphs houdemeri and andreevae per individual, respectively. Females with one or two vulval flaps were predominant, but there was a substantial presence of flapless females in both host species. All the morphs of male and female adults had an identical genetic background, thus directly confirming the morphological polymorphism of S. houdemeri.

Makouloutou P.,Yamaguchi University | Suzuki K.,Hikiiwa Park Center | Yokoyama M.,University of Hyogo | Takeuchi M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2015

Similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of Japan. We collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (Procyon lotor), six Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), one Japanese marten (Martes melampus), one stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and one Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), mainly in an area where mangy wild animals have been increasingly noted in the past 4 yr. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA gene and the partial 16S and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were characterized in these skin samples. The ITS2 sequencing (404 base pairs [bp]) identified the causative mite for mangy skin lesions of 128 animals as S. scabiei, regardless of host origin. The cat mite (Notoedres cati) was the cause in one raccoon dog and one raccoon. Most mites had almost identical ITS2 nucleotide sequences to those recorded in a variety of mammals worldwide. Partial 16S and cox-1 fragments of mtDNA amplified and sequenced successfully (331 bp and 410 bp, respectively) showed an identical nucleotide sequence except for one site (C vs. T) for the former and four sites (G, C, C, C vs. A, T, T, T, respectively) for the latter fragment. These substitutions were always synchronized, with the two mitochondrial DNA haplotypes (i.e., C/GCCC and T/ATTT) appearing to separately colonize in geographic units. The T/ATTT haplotype fell into a clade where animal-derived mites worldwide dominated, whereas the C/GCCC haplotype formed a geographic branch unique to Japanese isolates. These results suggest that heterologous populations of monospecific S. scabiei are expanding their populations and distributions regardless of host species in an apparently local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan. © Wildlife Disease Association 2015.

Uni S.,University of Malaya | Uni S.,Osaka City University | Bain O.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Suzuki K.,Hikiiwa Park Center | And 8 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2013

Acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae: Onchocercinae) is described based on adult filarioids and microfilariae obtained from subcutaneous connective tissues and skin, respectively, of Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma) in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. No endemic species of the genus had been found in Japan. Recently, some filarioids (e.g., Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Dirofilaria spp., and Onchocerca spp.) have come to light as causative agents of zoonosis worldwide. The new species was readily distinguished from its congeners by morphologic characteristics such as body length, body width, esophagus length, spicule length, and the length of microfilariae. Based on the molecular data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, A. delicata n. sp. was included in the clade of the genus Acanthocheilonema but differed from two other congeneric species available for study, A. viteae and A. reconditum. Acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. did not harbor Wolbachia. It is likely that the fauna of filarioids from mammals on the Japanese islands is characterized by a high level of endemicity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Horimoto T.,University of Tokyo | Maeda K.,Yamaguchi University | Murakami S.,University of Tokyo | Kiso M.,University of Tokyo | And 6 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health.

Watanabe S.,University of Tokyo | Maeda K.,Yamaguchi University | Suzuki K.,Hikiiwa Park Center | Ueda N.,University of Tokyo | And 9 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Because bats are associated with emerging zoonoses, identification and characterization of novel viruses from bats is needed. Using a modified rapid determination system for viral RNA/DNA sequences, we identified a novel bat betaherpesvirus 2 not detected by herpesvirus consensus PCR. This modified system is useful for detecting unknown viruses.

PubMed | Shiranaga Animal Hospital, Yamaguchi University, Morinoinuneko Animal Hospital, University of Hyogo and Hikiiwa Park Center
Type: | Journal: Journal of virological methods | Year: 2016

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, a food- and water-borne disease. In developed countries, consumption of meats from pigs, wild boars and deer is a major source of infection. Although HEV and HEV-related viruses have been detected in many animal species, their zoonotic potential and prevalence has not been completely understood. To detect anti-HEV antibody in mammalian species, a simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established using extract from cells expressing HEV capsid protein and protein A/G as an antigen and a reagent for detection of antibody. Absorbance in the ELISA was compared with those in our previous ELISA using VLPs and anti-swine antibody, suggesting that newly established ELISA was similarly specific and sensitive as the previous ELISA. Seroprevalence of HEV infection among wild boars was examined in Yamaguchi Prefecture, confirming that 111 of 364 wild boars (30.5%) were positive for anti-HEV antibody. Next, this ELISA was applied to humans, dogs, cats, ferrets, raccoons and masked palm civets in Japan, and anti-HEV antibodies were detected in humans, ferrets, dogs and cats. This ELISA is thus useful for serological surveys and comparison of HEV infection among various mammals, including humans.

Tokita M.,University of Tsukuba | Tokita M.,Harvard University | Abe T.,University of Tsukuba | Suzuki K.,Hikiiwa Park Center
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

By acquiring wings, bats are the only mammalian lineage to have achieved flight. To be capable of powered flight, they have unique muscles associated with their wing. However, the developmental origins of bat wing muscles, and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are unknown. Here we report, first, that the wing muscles are derived from multiple myogenic sources with different embryonic origins, and second, that there is a spatiotemporal correlation between the outgrowth of wing membranes and the expansion of wing muscles into them. Together, these findings imply that the wing membrane itself may regulate the patterning of wing muscles. Last, through comparative gene expression analysis, we show Fgf10 signalling is uniquely activated in the primordia of wing membranes. Our results demonstrate how components of Fgf signalling are likely to be involved in the development and evolution of novel complex adaptive traits. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Sakai M.,Kitasato University | Ohno R.,Kitasato University | Higuchi C.,Kitasato University | Sudo M.,Kitasato University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2012

Rhodococcus equi was isolated from the submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Wakayama and Hyogo, Japan, with a high prevalence. Rhodococcus equi isolation rates between locations, sexes, or body weights were not different, except in the prevalence of vapB-positive R. equi between locations. © Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

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