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Alshamali A.M.,Hijjawi Faculty for Engineering Technology | Aloqlah M.S.,Hijjawi Faculty for Engineering Technology
WSEAS Transactions on Communications | Year: 2013

Ascertaining the importance of the recently proposed spatial modulation, we study its performance in Weibull multipath fading channels. Closed form integral expressions for calculating the symbol error rate of spatial modulation (SM) in independent, not necessarily identical Weibull fading channels are derived. Simulation and the analytical results, considering different transmission scenarios, are very close over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values.

Al-Fahoum A.,Hijjawi Faculty for Engineering Technology | Al-Fraihat A.,Zarqa University | Al-Araida A.,Jordan University of Science and Technology
Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014

This paper highlights a new detection method based on higher spectral analysis techniques to distinguish the Electrocardiogram (ECG) of normal healthy subjects from that with a cardiac ischaemia (CI) patient. Higher spectral analysis techniques provide in-depth information other than available conventional spectral analysis techniques usually used with ECG analysis. They provide information within frequency parts and information regarding phase associations. Bispectral analysis- Bispectrum and Quadratic Phase Coupling techniques are utilized to detect as well as to characterize phase combined harmonics in ECG. The work is developed, tested and validated using Normal Sinus Rhythm Data from the MIT-BIH Database and CI data from the ST Petersburg European ST-T Database. The results validate the efficacy of the introduced method by maintaining 100% sensitivity and achieving 93.33% positive predictive accuracy. The simplicity and robustness of the proposed method makes it feasible to be used within available ECG systems. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

AL-Omari A.N.,Hijjawi Faculty for Engineering Technology | Ababneh A.,Hijjawi Faculty for Engineering Technology | Ababneh A.,Saarland University | Lear K.L.,Colorado State University
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2015

Inverted-polarity (n-up), high-speed, oxide-confined, polyimide-planarized, copper-plated 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with various aperture sizes were fabricated and characterized. The reported devices demonstrated intrinsic, parasitic, and thermal maximum bandwidth limitations of 39.3, 24.6, and 22.9 GHz, respectively. VCSELs with 7 μm active area diameter and 4 μm of plated copper exhibited a maximum -3 dB frequency modulation bandwidth (f-3 dB max) of 18.8 GHz and a resonance frequency of 14.8 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 8.8 kA/cm2, limited by thermal effects, with a high modulation current efficiency factor of 17.0 GHz/mA1/2 for quantum well VCSELs. The presented VCSELs also demonstrated a record high f-3 dB max2/Jbias ratio of 40.2 GHz2/kA/cm2 which represents an 11% increase compared with the highest previously reported ratio. Rate-equation-based thermal VCSEL model and three-pole transfer function approximation were applied to extract several VCSELs' parameters, which enabled the estimation of the VCSELs internal temperature and major bandwidth limitation. Particle swarm optimization was utilized in parameter extraction and optimization. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

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