Pyeongchang, South Korea
Pyeongchang, South Korea

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Lee S.-J.,Kyung Hee University | Shin J.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Choi H.-E.,Kyung Hee University | Lee K.-G.,Kyung Hee University | And 7 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

In this study, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the antiinflammatory effects of the chloroform fraction of the peel of 'Jayoung' (CFPJ), a color-fleshed potato, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. CFPJ inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcription level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing the translocation of NF-κB depending on degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α). Furthermore, CFPJ attenuated the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases3/6 (MKK3/6) and of p38. In colitis model, CFPJ significantly reduced the severity of colitis and the productions and protein levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in colonic tissue. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CFPJ are associated with the suppression of NF-κB and p38 activation in macrophages, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of colitis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee K.-G.,Kyung Hee University | Lee S.-G.,Kyung Hee University | Lee H.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Lee H.J.,Kyung Hee University | And 6 more authors.
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2015

In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in LPS-induced septic mice. α-Chaconine inhibited the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at the transcriptional level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the translocation and phosphorylation of c-Jun. α-Chaconine also suppressed the phosphorylation of TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which lies upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7)/Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. JNK knockdown using siRNA prevented the α-chaconine-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. In a sepsis model, pretreatment with α-chaconine reduced the LPS-induced lethality and the mRNA and production levels of pro-inflammatory mediators by inhibiting c-Jun activation. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine are associated with the suppression of AP-1, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shin J.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Lee K.-G.,Kyung Hee University | Lee H.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Lee H.J.,Kyung Hee University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2016

α-Solanine, a trisaccharide glycoalkaloid, has been reported to possess anti-cancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of α-solanine isolated from “Jayoung” a dark purple-fleshed potato by examining its in vitro inhibitory effects on inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and its in vivo effects on LPS-induced septic shock in a mouse model. α-Solanine suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 both at protein and mRNA levels and consequently inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. α-Solanine also reduced the production and mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced by LPS. Furthermore, molecular mechanism studies indicated that α-solanine inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing nuclear translocation of p65, degradation of inhibitory κBα (IκBα), and phosphorylation of IκB kinaseα/β (IKKα/β). In an in vivo experiment of LPS-induced endotoxemia, treatment with α-solanine suppressed mRNA expressions of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and the activation of NF-κB in liver. Importantly, α-solanine increased the survival rate of mice in LPS-induced endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis models. Taken together, our data suggest that the α-solanine may be a promising therapeutic against inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2327–2339, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Sangji University, Highland Agriculture Research Center and Kyung Hee University
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2013

In this study, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the antiinflammatory effects of the chloroform fraction of the peel of Jayoung (CFPJ), a color-fleshed potato, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. CFPJ inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcription level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-B (NF-B) by reducing the translocation of NF-B depending on degradation of inhibitory B- (IB-). Furthermore, CFPJ attenuated the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases3/6 (MKK3/6) and of p38. In colitis model, CFPJ significantly reduced the severity of colitis and the productions and protein levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in colonic tissue. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CFPJ are associated with the suppression of NF-B and p38 activation in macrophages, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of colitis.


PubMed | Sangji University, Highland Agriculture Research Center and Kyung Hee University
Type: | Journal: Chemico-biological interactions | Year: 2015

In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of -chaconine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in LPS-induced septic mice. -Chaconine inhibited the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) at the transcriptional level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the translocation and phosphorylation of c-Jun. -Chaconine also suppressed the phosphorylation of TGF--activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which lies upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7)/Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. JNK knockdown using siRNA prevented the -chaconine-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. In a sepsis model, pretreatment with -chaconine reduced the LPS-induced lethality and the mRNA and production levels of pro-inflammatory mediators by inhibiting c-Jun activation. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of -chaconine are associated with the suppression of AP-1, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis.


Kim J.I.,Highland Agriculture Research Center | Joo Y.R.,Korea University | Kwon M.,Highland Agriculture Research Center | Kim G.H.,Korea University | Lee S.H.,Seoul National University
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2012

Insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was determined to be involved in an EPN-resistant (ER) strain and a contaminated susceptible (CS) strain of diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella L.), as estimated by AChE inhibition assay using DDVP as a inhibitor in a nondenaturing electrophoresis gel. The ER strain exhibited very high AChE insensitivity, high resistance ratio, and two point mutations (G324A, A298S) in ace1-type AChE gene (Pxace1). The CS strain showed low AChE insensitivity, low resistance ratio, and it has only one point mutation (G324A). These findings suggest that the A298S mutation, along with reported G324A mutation (Baek et al, 2005), can be important in the development of organophosphate resistance. These results also suggest that the A298S mutation could be a good candidate for a molecular diagnosis marker for resistance monitoring. Three molecular diagnosis methods (Quantitative Sequencing; QS, PCR amplification of specific alleles; PASA and restriction fragment length polymorphism; RFLP) were developed which successfully detected specific resistance associated point mutations. Seven local population DBMs were surveyed and showed high insecticide resistance levels and a A298S mutation in Pxace1. These methods can be used to monitor the resistance allele in field population of DBMs and resistance management strategy. © 2012 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.


Kim J.I.,Highland Agriculture Research Center | Min J.S.,Seoul National University | Kwon M.,Highland Agriculture Research Center | Choi J.-Y.,NICS | Lee S.H.,Seoul National University
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2014

A gregarine parasite (Eugregarinida: Gregarinidae) was observed in the population of daikon leaf beetle, Phaedon brassicae Baly, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Korea. Gregarines are well known species-specific parasites of various Arthropoda. This Gregarina sp. also confirmed a species-specific parasite in P. brassicae. Based on 1.727. kb of 18S rDNA sequence (FJ481523), this gregarine species was grouped in eugregarine and a 5.258. kb of full length rDNA replicon was cloned (JF412715). We also observed interaction of trophozoite or gamonto of gregarine and epithelium of a host midgut using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Although the developmental period of the infected host is delayed half a day in every larval stage, there was no significant difference in the developmental period of P. brassicae whether Gregarina sp. was infected or not. Gregarina sp. was a kind of facultative parasite from P. brassicae. This is the first report of a gregarine parasite in P. brassicae. © 2013 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.


Kim J.I.,Highland Agriculture Research Center | Kwon M.,Highland Agriculture Research Center | Kim G.-H.,Korea University | Kim S.Y.,Dongbu Hannong Co. | Lee S.H.,Seoul National University
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2015

The Aphis gossypii imidacloprid-resistant (IR) strain was about 3800-fold resistant to imidacloprid. Synergistic bioassays revealed that metabolic factors were not likely involved in resistance. An isogenic susceptible (IGS) strain was generated and used as references for RNA-seq, qrtPCR and 2DE. There were no noticeable differences between IGS and IR strains in either the transcriptome or proteome profiles, confirming that imidacloprid resistance is likely due to the target site insensitivity. The IR strain was determined to possess a point mutation resulting in an R81T substitution only in the nAChR beta 1 subunit, which had been also reported to be responsible for the reduced sensitivity to imidacloprid in M. persicae. An nAChR beta 1 subunit transcript variant in the N-terminal region was found and an additional point mutation, L80S was also detected along with the R81T mutation in IR strain, suggesting its potential role in resistance. Taken together, the R81T mutation in the nAChR beta 1 subunit, perhaps with the L80S mutation as well, could be the major factor of imidaloprid resistance in the IR strain and can be employed as molecular markers for the detection of imidacloprid resistance in field populations of A. gossypii. •We find new case in imidacloprid resistance mechanism in insect.•Mutations confer the resistance phenotype without P450-mediated detoxification.•The L80S mutation along with the R81T mutation in nAChR can be the main player to develop imidacloprid resistance. © 2015 .


Kwon D.H.,Seoul National University | Kim K.,Seoul National University | Kang T.-J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Kim S.-J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2015

A modified residual contact vial bioassay (RCV) in which a small aliquot (1μl) of water was supplemented to minimize control mortality was established as a rapid insecticide resistance monitoring tool for the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Based on the RCV scheme, diagnostic doses for seven insecticides that are widely used for F. occidentalis control were determined at 8h post-treatment using a susceptible RDA strain. The diagnostic doses for five insecticides (chlorfenapyr, acrinathrin, spinosad, emamectin benzoate and thiamethoxam) were in the range of 0.03 to 0.42μg-1cm2 and were readily applicable for the detection of resistance levels. In the case of the remaining two insecticides (omethoate and imidacloprid), however, the estimated diagnostic doses were too high (3.28 and 12.4μg-1cm2, respectively) to form a viscous film over the inner wall of the treated vial, thereby limiting their use for resistance detection. Thus, the performance of RCV in detecting resistance to the five insecticides was evaluated for five local populations of F. occidentalis. The RDA strain exhibited 100% mortality to all insecticides tested, whereas field populations collected from horticultural glass houses generally showed remarkably reduced mortality (<50%) to acrinathrin, thiamethoxam, spinosad, and emamectin benzoate, suggesting varying degrees of resistance to these insecticides. Chlorfenapyr resulted in relatively higher mortalities, indicating that it is a better option compared with the other insecticides for the control of these field populations. In summary, the RCV should facilitate the on-site resistance monitoring and the selection of appropriate insecticides against F. occidentalis. © 2015 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.


PubMed | Chungbuk National University, Highland Agriculture Research Center and Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

Phosphine (PH3) and ethyl formate (EF) are two potentially powerful postharvest fumigant insecticides. We investigated the effectiveness of both PH3 and EF as fumigants at all developmental stages of the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella Zeller, and we also studied the synergistic effects of these fumigants under controlled atmospheres of 50 and 80% oxygen (O2). The larval stage of P. operculella was the most susceptible to fumigation with PH3 at both 5C and 20C. All of the developmental stages showed greater susceptibility to PH3 at 20C than at 5C, whereas the susceptibility of adult P. operculella to this fumigant was not affected by temperature. The toxicity of EF did not differ with temperature for any of the P. operculella developmental stages. The atmospheric oxidation of PH3 increased the toxicity of this fumigant toward all developmental stages at both temperatures. In contrast, no differences in toxicity were observed for oxidized EF compared with EF alone at any developmental stage. In conclusion, using fumigation tests, we showed that atmospherically oxidized PH3 was much more effective against P. operculella than PH3 alone, demonstrating a synergistic effect for this fumigant and O2. Therefore, treatment with PH3 and high concentrations of O2, as described in this study, could be useful for managing the postharvest pest P. operculella.

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