Higher Institute of Health science

Bangangté, Cameroon

Higher Institute of Health science

Bangangté, Cameroon

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Galukande M.,Makerere University | von Schreeb J.,Karolinska Institutet | Wladis A.,Soder Hospital | Mbembati N.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | And 12 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2010

Background Surgical conditions contribute significantly to the disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet there is an apparent neglect of surgical care as a public health intervention to counter this burden. There is increasing enthusiasm to reverse this trend, by promoting essential surgical services at the district hospital, the first point of contact for critical conditions for rural populations. This study investigated the scope of surgery conducted at district hospitals in three sub-Saharan African countries. Methods and Findings In a retrospective descriptive study, field data were collected from eight district hospitals in Uganda, Tanzania, and Mozambique using a standardized form and interviews with key informants. Overall, the scope of surgical procedures performed was narrow and included mainly essential and life-saving emergency procedures. Surgical output varied across hospitals from five to 45 major procedures/10,000 people. Obstetric operations were most common and included cesarean sections and uterine evacuations. Hernia repair and wound care accounted for 65% of general surgical procedures. The number of beds in the studied hospitals ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 per 1,000 population. Conclusion The findings of this study clearly indicate low levels of surgical care provision at the district level for the hospitals studied. The extent to which this translates into unmet need remains unknown although the very low proportions of live births in the catchment areas of these eight hospitals that are born by cesarean section suggest that there is a substantial unmet need for surgical services. The district hospital in the current health system in sub-Saharan Africa lends itself to feasible integration of essential surgery into the spectrum of comprehensive primary care services. It is therefore critical that the surgical capacity of the district hospital is significantly expanded; this will result in sustainable preventable morbidity and mortality. © 2010 Galukande et al.


Kruk M.E.,Columbia University | Wladis A.,Soder Hospital | Mbembati N.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Ndao-Brumblay S.K.,University of Michigan | And 12 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2010

Background There is a growing recognition that the provision of surgical services in low-income countries is inadequate to the need. While constrained health budgets and health worker shortages have been blamed for the low rates of surgery, there has been little empirical data on the providers of surgery and cost of surgical services in Africa. This study described the range of providers of surgical care and anesthesia and estimated the resources dedicated to surgery at district hospitals in three African countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional survey of data from eight district hospitals in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda. There were no specialist surgeons or anesthetists in any of the hospitals. Most of the health workers were nurses (77.5%), followed by mid-level providers (MLPs) not trained to provide surgical care (7.8%), and MLPs trained to perform surgical procedures (3.8%). There were one to six medical doctors per hospital (4.2% of clinical staff). Most major surgical procedures were performed by doctors (54.6%), however over one-third (35.9%) were done by MLPs. Anesthesia was mainly provided by nurses (39.4%). Most of the hospital expenditure was related to staffing. Of the total operating costs, only 7% to 14% was allocated to surgical care, the majority of which was for obstetric surgery. These costs represent a per capita expenditure on surgery ranging from US$0.05 to US$0.14 between the eight hospitals. Conclusion African countries have adopted different policies to ensure the provision of surgical care in their respective district hospitals. Overall, the surgical output per capita was very low, reflecting low staffing ratios and limited expenditures for surgery. We found that most surgical and anesthesia services in the three countries in the study were provided by generalist doctors, MLPs, and nurses. Although more information is needed to estimate unmet need for surgery, increasing the funds allocated to surgery, and, in the absence of trained doctors and surgeons, formalizing the training of MLPs appears to be a pragmatic and cost-effective way to make basic surgical services available in underserved areas. © 2010 Kruk et al.


Kaze F.F.,University of Yaounde I | Kaze F.F.,The Yaounde University Teaching Hospital | Kengne A.-P.,University of Cape Town | Magatsing C.T.,Higher Institute of Health science | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Hypertension | Year: 2016

Hypertension is a risk factor for renal diseases, which, in turn, are precursors of hypertension. The authors assessed the prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among 336 hypertensive adult Cameroonians (mean age, 60.9±11.3 years; 63.4% women) at Yaoundé. Any participant with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 regardless of the equation used (Cockcroft-Gault [CG], Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD], and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI]) and/or dipstick proteinuria was reviewed 3 months later. Participants presented a high prevalence of diabetes (18.5%), dyslipidemia (17.6%), gout/hyperuricemia (10.7%), overweight/obesity (68.8%), self-medication (37.5%), and alcohol consumption (33.3%). Hypertension was uncontrolled in 265 patients (78.9%). The prevalence of CKD was 49.7%, 50.0%, and 52.1% according to MDRD, CKD-EPI, and CG equations, respectively. Advanced age, adiposity, and severity of hypertension were determinants of CKD. Nearly half of the hypertensive patients had CKD regardless of the estimators used, predicted by well-known risk factors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kaze F.F.,University of Yaounde I | Meto D.T.,Higher Institute of Health science | Halle M.-P.,University of Douala | Ngogang J.,Higher Institute of Health science | Kengne A.-P.,University of Cape Town
BMC Nephrology | Year: 2015

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem that disproportionally affects people of African ethnicity. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of CKD and albuminuria in urban and rural adults Cameroonians. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 6-month duration (February to July 2014), conducted in the health district of Dschang (Western Region of Cameroon), using a multistage cluster sampling. All adults diagnosed with albuminuria (≥30 mg/g) and/or decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were re-examined three months later. Logistic regression models were used to relate baseline characteristics with prevalent CKD. Results: We included 439 participants with a mean age of 47 ± 16.1 years; with 185 (42.1 %) being men and 119 (27.1 %) being urban dwellers. There was a high prevalence of hypertension (25.5 %), diabetes (9.8 %), smoking (9.3 %), alcohol consumption (59.7 %), longstanding use of herbal medicine (90.9 %) and street medications (87.5 %), and overweight/obesity (53.3 %) which were predominant in rural area. The prevalence of CKD was 13.2 % overall, 14.1 % in rural and 10.9 % in urban participants. Equivalents figures for CKD stages G3-G4 and albuminuria were 2.5 %, 1.6 % and 5.0 %; and 12.1 %, 14.1 % and 6.7 % respectively. Existing hypertension and diabetes were associated with all outcomes. Elevated systolic blood pressure and the presence of hypertension and diabetes were the predictors of albuminuria and CKD while urban residence was associated with CKD stages G3-G4. Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD and albuminuria was high in this population, predominantly in rural area, and driven mostly by the commonest risk factors. © 2015 Kaze et al.


Kaze F.F.,University Teaching Hospital of Yaounde | Halle M.-P.,University of Douala | Mopa H.T.,Higher Institute of Health science | Ashuntantang G.,University of Yaounde 1Yaounde | And 3 more authors.
BMC Nephrology | Year: 2015

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major threat to the health of people of African ancestry. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of CKD among adults in urban Cameroon. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of two months duration (March to April 2013) conducted at the Cité des Palmiers health district in the Littoral region of Cameroon. A multistage cluster sampling approach was applied. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was based on the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the predictors of CKD. Results: In the 500 participants with a mean age of 45.3 ± 13.2 years included, we observed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (60.4%), hypertension (38.6%) and diabetes (2.8%). The mean eGFR was 93.7 ± 24.9, 97.8 ± 24.9 and 99.2 ± 31.4 ml/min respectively with the MDRD, CG and CKD-EPI equations. The prevalence of albuminuria was 7.2% while the prevalence of decreased GFR (eGFR < 60 ml/min) and CKD (any albuminuria and/or eGFR < 60 ml/min) was 4.4 and 11% with MDRD, 5.4 and 14.2% with CG, and 8.8 and 10% with CKD-EPI. In age and sex adjusted logistic regression models, advanced age, known hypertension and diabetes mellitus, increasing body mass index and overweight/obesity were the predictors of albuminuria, decreased GFR and CKD according to various estimators. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of CKD in urban adults Cameroonian, driven essentially by the commonest risk factors for CKD. © 2015 Kaze et al.


PubMed | University of Douala, Yaounde Central Hospital, University of Yaounde I, Higher Institute of Health science and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) | Year: 2016

Hypertension is a risk factor for renal diseases, which, in turn, are precursors of hypertension. The authors assessed the prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among 336 hypertensive adult Cameroonians (mean age, 60.911.3 years; 63.4% women) at Yaound. Any participant with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) regardless of the equation used (Cockcroft-Gault [CG], Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD], and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI]) and/or dipstick proteinuria was reviewed 3 months later. Participants presented a high prevalence of diabetes (18.5%), dyslipidemia (17.6%), gout/hyperuricemia (10.7%), overweight/obesity (68.8%), self-medication (37.5%), and alcohol consumption (33.3%). Hypertension was uncontrolled in 265 patients (78.9%). The prevalence of CKD was 49.7%, 50.0%, and 52.1% according to MDRD, CKD-EPI, and CG equations, respectively. Advanced age, adiposity, and severity of hypertension were determinants of CKD. Nearly half of the hypertensive patients had CKD regardless of the estimators used, predicted by well-known risk factors.


PubMed | University of Yaounde I, University of Douala, University of Cape Town and Higher Institute of Health science
Type: | Journal: BMC nephrology | Year: 2015

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem that disproportionally affects people of African ethnicity. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of CKD and albuminuria in urban and rural adults Cameroonians.This was a cross-sectional study of 6-month duration (February to July 2014), conducted in the health district of Dschang (Western Region of Cameroon), using a multistage cluster sampling. All adults diagnosed with albuminuria ( 30 mg/g) and/or decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (< 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) were re-examined three months later. Logistic regression models were used to relate baseline characteristics with prevalent CKD.We included 439 participants with a mean age of 47 16.1 years; with 185 (42.1 %) being men and 119 (27.1 %) being urban dwellers. There was a high prevalence of hypertension (25.5 %), diabetes (9.8 %), smoking (9.3 %), alcohol consumption (59.7 %), longstanding use of herbal medicine (90.9 %) and street medications (87.5 %), and overweight/obesity (53.3 %) which were predominant in rural area. The prevalence of CKD was 13.2 % overall, 14.1 % in rural and 10.9 % in urban participants. Equivalents figures for CKD stages G3-G4 and albuminuria were 2.5 %, 1.6 % and 5.0 %; and 12.1 %, 14.1 % and 6.7 % respectively. Existing hypertension and diabetes were associated with all outcomes. Elevated systolic blood pressure and the presence of hypertension and diabetes were the predictors of albuminuria and CKD while urban residence was associated with CKD stages G3-G4.The prevalence of CKD and albuminuria was high in this population, predominantly in rural area, and driven mostly by the commonest risk factors.


Kengne A.P.,University of Cape Town | Limen S.N.,Higher Institute of Health science | Sobngwi E.,University of Yaounde I | Sobngwi E.,Northumbria University | And 2 more authors.
Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome | Year: 2012

Background: Available definition criteria for metabolic syndrome (MS) have similarities and inconsistencies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MS in a group of Cameroonians with type 2 diabetes, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria, and to assess the concordance between both criteria, and the implications of combining them. Methods: We collected clinical and biochemical data for 308 patients with type 2 diabetes (men 157) at the National Obesity Center of the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon. Concordance was assessed with the use of the Kappa statistic. Results: Mean age (standard deviation) was 55.8 (10.5) years and the median duration of diagnosed diabetes (25th75th percentiles) was 3 years (0.55.0), similarly among men and women. The prevalence of MS was 71.7% according to the IDF criteria and 60.4% according to NCEP-ATP III criteria. The prevalence was significantly higher in women than in men independently of the criteria used (both p<0.001). Overall concordance between both definitions was low to average 0.51 (95% confidence interval: 0.410.61). Combining the two sets of criteria marginally improved the yield beyond that provided by the IDF criteria alone in men, but not in the overall population and in women. Conclusions: The IDF and NCEP-ATP III criteria do not always diagnose the same group of diabetic individuals with MS and combining them merely increases the yield beyond that provided by the IDF definition alone. This study highlights the importance of having a single unifying definition for MS in our setting. © 2012 Kengne et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Monteiro L.S.,Higher Institute of Health science
Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology | Year: 2010

Our aim was to validate the use of tissue microarrays (TMA) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to analyse epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ki-67 expression. We also analysed the relationship that the expression of these markers may have with clinical, pathological and survival variables. The study sample comprised 39 unselected patients diagnosed and treated for OSCC. We analysed Ki-67 and EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens. Whole sections (WS) were compared with double 1.5 mm core-tissue microarrays. High EGFR expression was observed both on TMA (in 98% of the cases) and WS (in 100% of the cases) with substantial agreement kappa value (0.720). EGFR expression was not significantly associated with clinical, pathological and survival variables on TMA and WS. Ki-67 analysis showed a Spearman correlation of 0.741 with a Ki-67 mean labelling index of 45% in TMA and 56.8% in WS. We found a significant relationship between gender and Ki-67 labelling index on WS (P = 0.022) and TMA (P = 0.002). Clinical stage was the only parameter in multivariate analysis that had a significant predictive value. We demonstrate that dual 1.5 mm core TMA is a valid, rapid, economical and tissue-saving way to study OSCC biopsies and that it presents strong correlation with the WS. EGFR overexpression in OSCC suggests that these tumours may be a candidate for therapy investigation directed to EGFR.


PubMed | Higher Institute of Health science
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Brazilian dental journal | Year: 2012

Epulis fissuratum is a pseudotumor growth located over the soft tissues of the vestibular sulcus caused by chronic irritation from poorly adapted dentures. Treatment indication for these lesions is surgical excision with appropriate prosthetic reconstruction. The hemostatic capacity of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser is well described in the literature as a useful tool in oral surgery, especially in patients with clotting disorders. This paper presents a case of a 72-year-old female patient referred to the Nossa Senhora da Conceio de Valongo Hospital at Porto, Portugal, with a massive growth of vestibular oral mucosa in the mandible and maxilla associated with ill-fitting dentures, suggestive of epulis fissuratum. The patient was taking antithrombotic medication. The lesions were excised with CO(2) laser, and no significant complications, such as hemorrhage, pain, swelling or infection, were recorded. Twenty days after surgery, both areas were completely reepithelizaded. Prosthetic rehabilitation and function were achieved with the fabrication of new maxillary and mandibular dentures. Follow-up 1 month and 1 year after treatment revealed the areas free of recurrence. The use of CO(2) lasers is currently the gold standard in the excision of this type of lesion, especially in patients with hemorrhagic diathesis or under antithrombotic therapy.

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