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Oliveira N.L.,University of Porto | Ribeiro F.,University of Porto | Ribeiro F.,University of Aveiro | Alves A.J.,University of Porto | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging | Year: 2014

The purpose of this state-of-the-art review was to examine the effects of exercise training on arterial stiffness (AS) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A PubMed and SCOPUS literature search was conducted up to March of 2013. Two authors performed the selection of the studies and the subsequent data extraction (e.g. information on study design, exercise programme characteristics and outcome measures). Of 34 papers identified, only five studies met the inclusion criteria, with no one being a randomized controlled trial. Within the selected studies, the sample size varied between 28 and 119 patients, with mean ages ranging from 48 to 67 years old in patients with CAD after an acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Although all studies utilized the aerobic exercise mode, the other characteristics of the exercise programmes varied largely between the studies: programme length (from 6 to 20 weeks), exercise duration (15-20 to 50 min) and exercise intensity, which was based on heart rate reserve (40 to 85%) or heart rate at anaerobic threshold or ventilatory threshold. All the three studies evaluating pulse wave velocity, as well as one of two studies that assessed the augmentation index, reported significant reductions on those variables after exercise training. Results indicated that the majority of the AS and related measures improved after the different exercise training programmes. However, these results need to be confirmed in future randomized clinical studies controlling potential confounders. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Raeissadat S.A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Mojgani P.,Higher Institute of Educational Sciences | Pournajaf S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Life Science Journal | Year: 2013

In addition to acute and chronic pain due to fractures, many negative effects of osteoporosis on quality of life are associated with kyphotic posture, balance disturbance and physical, mental and social side effects of falling and fear of fall. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short term effect of back extensor strengthening exercise on quality of life of women with primary osteoporosis. In this semi experimental clinical trial with available sampling method, 90 women between the ages of 55 to 75 with primary osteoporosis and 45 to 60-degree kyphosis who were admitted to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic of Shahid Modarres university hospital in Tehran were included. Each patient fulfilled the Persian version of SF36 quality of life questionnaire. Patients were categorized randomly in case and control groups. All of the participants were treated with pharmacotherapy, weight bearing and balance training exercises. Patients in the case group also taught to perform back extensor strengthening exercises at home including 10 contractions of back extensors without increasing the lordosis based on prof. Sinaki's program in Mayoclinic (Sinaki 2007). 8weeks after the initiation of treatment, patients fulfilled the quality of life questionnaire once again and the results were compared. At the end of study in the case group, scores of physical function, bodily pain, general health, social functioning, role emotional and role physical improved significantly but no significant difference was seen in mental health variable (p=0.06) and vitality variable (p=0.06). No significant differences were seen between case and control groups in variables of physical function (p=0.72), bodily pain (p=0.85), general health (p=0.47), social functioning (p=0.42) and mental health (p=0.07) also role physical (p=0.80) role emotional (p=0.70) and vitality (p=0.61). In this study total QOL was improved significantly, whether in patients under pharmacotherapy and weight-bearing and balance training exercises (control group) or in patients who performed back extensor strengthening exercises in addition to the aforementioned treatments (case group), but in short term there was no meaningful difference between groups after intervention.

Ribeiro F.,Polytechnic Health Institute of the North | Ribeiro F.,University of Porto | Ribeiro I.P.,University of Coimbra | Alves A.J.,University of Porto | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: This review aimed to examine the effects of exercise training on mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with cardiovascular disease and to discuss the possible mechanisms involved in the process. A computer-aided search on PubMed and PEDro was conducted to identify relevant studies published up to June 2012. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted data, namely, quantitative assessment of circulating EPCs. Of the 88 identified studies, 13 met the inclusion criteria. The 13 studies enrolled 648 participants, including patients with chronic heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and coronary artery disease. The exercise characteristics varied largely across the studies: exercise duration ranged from 2 wks to 6 mos, session duration ranged from 20 to 60 mins, and exercise intensity was usually calculated using the maximal heart rate (ranging from 75% to 85%) or the peak/maximum oxygen consumption (60%-70%). All studies used aerobic exercise. The great majority of the 13 studies reported significant effects of different exercise regimens on the number of circulating EPCs. In summary, exercise training seems to increase the number of circulating EPCs, which could contribute to vascular regeneration and angiogenesis. These positive effects of chronic exercise seem to be closely related to the bioavailability of nitric oxide, including increased activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and antioxidant enzymes, and activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9.

Garani G.,Higher Institute of Educational Sciences | Helmer S.,Free University of Bozen Bolzano
International Journal of Data Warehousing and Mining | Year: 2012

A fundamental issue encountered by the research community of data warehouses (DWs) is the modeling of data. In this paper, a new design is proposed, named the starnest schema, for the logical modeling of DWs. Using nested methodology, data semantics can be explicitly represented. Part of the design involves providing a translation mechanism from the star/snowflake schemas to a nested representation. The novel schema proposed in this paper is accomplished by converting the fact-dimension schema to a fact-nested dimension schema. The transformation of the denormalized dimension tables to nested dimension tables increases the efficiency of query execution by reducing the number of tuples accessed for query retrieval since dimensional attributes can be used directly in the Group-by clause. In order to facilitate the implementation of the proposed approach, specific algorithms are built based on the starnest schema. Copyright © 2012, IGI Global.

Do Nascimento Ferreira Runa A.I.,Higher Institute of Educational Sciences | Miranda G.L.,University of Lisbon
RISTI - Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao | Year: 2015

This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a questionnaire, composed of two scales of emotional well-being and malaise, first used on a sample of Portuguese students. This questionnaire evaluates the emotions involved in the learning that takes place in a virtual environment. The Portuguese validation of the two scales revealed good psychometric properties. In terms of its internal consistency and construct validity, the results revealed, as in the original study, to be a very consistent and reliable measuring instrument and can therefore be replicated in a Portuguese university population in online learning.

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