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Bahri-Sahloul R.,Tunis el Manar University | Ben Fredj R.,University of Sousse | Boughalleb N.,Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem | Shriaa J.,Laboratory of Environment Microbiology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Objective. Plant cell culture is an innovative technology to produce a variety of substances. Numerous plants synthesize among their secondary metabolites phenolic compounds which possess antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Hawthorn (Crataegus) is one of these plants which has long been used in folk medicine and is widely utilized in pharmaceutical preparations mainly in neuro- and cardiosedative actions. Methods and Results. The production of polyphenol by fifty-two-week-old Crataegus azarolus var. aronia calli was studied in relation to growth variation and antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity within a subcultured period. The DPPH and ABTS+ assays were used to characterize the antioxidant actions of the callus cultures. Antimicrobial activity was tested by using disc diffusion and dilution assays for the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of each active extract. High TEAC TEAC and antimicrobial activity was observed when maximal growth was reached. An optimum of total phenol, proanthocyanidins, flavonoid, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, chlorogenic acid, and hyperoside was produced during this period. Conclusion. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were strongly correlated with total phenols and total flavonoids. Crataegus azarolus var. aronia cells culture represents an important alternative source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. © 2014 Radhia Bahri-Sahloul et al. Source


M'Hamdi M.,Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem | M'Hamdi M.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Boughalleb N.,Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem | Ouhaibi N.,Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

Pepper wilting and root rot disease have been observed in Tunisia for many years. This disease causes severe losses for pepper production both in fields and greenhouses in the main crop cultivated areas of pepper production. The causative agent of the syndrome belongs to the genus Phytophthora and has been identified as Phytophthora nicotianae. Being a soil-borne pathogen, effective disease control methods are limited apart from soil disinfestations by fumigation with methyl bromide and disinfection of internal space of greenhouses with a formaldehyde solution. With the general banning of methylbromide from Europe and countries exporting legumes to the European market, alternative measures for disease management are urgently required. In this study the efficacy of grafting commercial pepper cultivars (Starter and Torero) onto a new rootstock (Brutus) was examined in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Hole insertion grafting is shown in this study to be the grafting technique of choice for pepper and validates the general trend that grafting could be used as an alternative control method of soil-borne pathogens such as Phytophthora nicotianae. Source


M'hamdi M.,Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem | Chikh-Rouhou H.,Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem | Boughalleb N.,Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem | de Galarreta J.I.R.,Neiker Basque Institute for Agricultural Research
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2013

In the present study, the potato cultivar 'Desirée' was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing the plasmid pBIN19 which harbors the Ribosome Inactivating Protein (rip30). The potato leaf discs were used as an explant for transformation. The in vitro regeneration parameters (percentage of callus regenerated, number of shoots per callus, percentage of regenerated roots and percentage of the transgenic plants) were evaluated. The PCR technique was used for identification of transformed plants. Southern and Western blot analyses were applied for molecular characterization of the transgenic clones. A greenhouse assay was carried out to evaluate the resistance to Rhizoctonia solani pathogen of transgenic clones expressing the rip30 gene. The results revealed that not all the plants developed in selective medium were positive for the corresponding gene using the PCR technique. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the tested transgenic plants integrated three copies of rip30 gene into their genome. The expression of the RIP30 protein was confirmed in the leaf extracts of the transgenic clones by Western blot analysis. Resistance evaluation of the transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions showed that disease incidence and severity were reduced for R. solani. Source


Jebali J.,Higher Institute of Agriculture | Sabbagh M.,Higher Institute of Agriculture | Banni M.,Higher Institute of Agriculture | Kamel N.,Higher Institute of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

This field study investigates the morphological indices (condition index, hepatosomatic index) and biochemical (catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation) parameters in liver, gills and kidney of common sole (Solea solea) originating from different sites of the Tunisian coast area impacted by different anthropogenic activities. Differences among sites and tissues for AChE, GST, CAT, MT and TBARS were found and possibly related to known sources of domestic and industrial discharges in the studied sites. Liver, gills and kidney CAT, liver and kidney MT and brain AChE were key biomarkers to discriminate fish of different sites. So, we suggest using these biomarkers in future biomonitoring. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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