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Kannan N.,Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry | Senthivel T.,Gandhigram Rural University | Rayar A.J.,Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry | Frank M.,Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

The study explores the potential of introducing an additional crop during dry season in Rwanda, comparing the efficiency of in situ soil moisture conservation techniques to sustain rain-fed agriculture. Comparative study of in situ soil moisture conservation techniques in bench terraces and unterraced field with maize crop had been conducted from June 2007 to October 2007. Bench terrace increased the average soil moisture content in 90 cm soil depth by more than 50% than that of unterraced land. Within the bench terraced field compartment bund and ridges and furrows increased soil moisture by 19.5% and 27.9% higher than plain bed. In terms of efficiency of moisture conservation, ridges and furrows performed well with 85.8% followed by compartment bund with 75.9% in terraced field. Unterraced field conserved moisture very poorly with 13.9% efficiency inferring importance of bench terraces for soil moisture conservation. No maize grain yield was recorded in all the techniques because soil water depleted to 60% and above from the beginning of the cropping period inferring the need of supplementary irrigation. Analysis of rainfall, crop water demand and in situ moisture conservation reveals exciting opportunities for water productivity enhancements by integrating components of water management within the context of rain-fed farming through water harvesting and supplemental or microirrigation for dry spell mitigation. Detailed analysis is needed for feasibility of lift irrigation with different crops under different altitudes to derive suitable policy for hill land irrigation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kamana O.,Ghent University | Kamana O.,Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry | Ceuppens S.,Ghent University | Jacxsens L.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2014

Milk is a valuable and nutritious food product that can partially fulfill the rising food demand of the growing African population. The microbiological status of milk and derived products was assessed throughout the milk and dairy chain in Rwanda by enumeration of the total mesophilic count, coliforms, and Staphylococcus aureus and detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. The quality of raw milk was satisfactory for the majority of samples, but 5.2% contained Salmonella. At the processing level, the total mesophilic count and coliform numbers indicated ineffective heat treatment during pasteurization or postpasteurization contamination. Increasing bacterial counts were observed along the retail chain and could be attributed to insufficient temperature control during storage. Milk and dairy products sold in milk shops were of poor and variable microbiological quality in comparison with the pasteurized milk sold in supermarkets. In particular, the microbiological load and pathogen prevalence in cheese were unacceptably high. © International Association for Food Protection.

Mutandwa E.,College of Agriculture,Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda | Mutandwa E.,Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry | Ngendabanga A.,College of Agriculture,Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda | Ngendabanga A.,Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

Livestock resources form an integral part of Rwanda’s socio-cultural and economic setting. Public livestock initiatives were developed in recent years but the programs have been limited by financial resources. It is against this background that Send-A-Cow Rwanda (SACR) project was developed. The main objective of this research was to examine the impact of various socio-demographic factors on the passing of livestock resources among farmers in Kayonza and Rwamagana districts. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to guide the data-collection process. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data. Results showed that the probability of passing on the gift was influenced by frequency and quality of SACR veterinary extension services as well as calving frequency of ther "gifted"animals. Farmers, however, had a low perception of SACR veterinary extension services offered by the project. These results suggest the need to explore complimentary veterinary extension services for greater project sustainability. © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Chitra S.,Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry | de Sebareze L.G.,Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
International Journal of Ecology and Development | Year: 2011

several traditional medicines for treating cough and cold. In the present study, antibacterial activity in the leaf extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. against pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Salmonella entertica, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris was evaluated by in vitro agar well diffusion method and agar disc diffusion method. Results show that compared to aqueous extract, organic extracts of the leaves were found to possess strong antibacterial activity. In Agar disc diffusion method the ethanol extract exhibits maximum antibacterial activity against Salmonella entertica followed by Staphylococcus aureus with diameter of the inhibition zone of 4.2cm and 3.9cm respectively when compared with the standard antibiotic (Chloromphenical 30g/disc). In Agar well diffusion method ethanol extract followed by acetone showed maximum inhibition zone diameter of 2.9cm against Escherichia coli and Salmonella entertica. Medicinal potential of Thyme and its exploitation can certainly support achieving indigenous medical treatment.

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