Higher Institute of Agricultural science

Sousse, Tunisia

Higher Institute of Agricultural science

Sousse, Tunisia

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Gaaliche B.,National Institute of Agricultural Research of Tunisia INRAT | Aachi-Mezghani M.,Institute Of Lolivier | Trad M.,National Institute of Agricultural Research of Tunisia INRAT | Costes E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Fruit Science | Year: 2016

Tree architecture describes plant form by defining the spatial organization of different structures. Shoot branching is an important step in understanding the tree architecture. Such studies are required for analyzing phenotypic diversity of plant architecture. Because such studies are rare on fig trees, the architecture diversity among nine Tunisian fig cultivars grown in Chott-Mariem (center-east Tunisia) was explored. Quantitative morphological descriptors were noted on six annual shoots and studied during four yearly growth cycles, from 2007–10. Coding strategy was adopted for fig branch description. Branch growth characteristics, location, and distribution of axillary shoots were determined for three axis orders. Results showed a great variability of fig branches, particularly in terms of branching density and position, branching angle, and shoot dimensions. Shoot length was closely related to its architectural position in the branch, i.e., all low-order shoots in all cultivars had more growth than high-order shoots. The meso-basitony tendency was frequent. Thus, an architectural typology characterizing all cultivars was established and three principal groups were distinguished. The first one (Type I) with orthotropic branches located at the basal and median parts of the bearer axis had dense and continuous ramification. The second group (Type II) with a diffuse branching differed in lateral shoot distribution, and finally, the third group (Type III) had open and diffuse branching located on the basal zone of the carrier axis. This typology could be used in future genetic improvement programs of local fig trees in Tunisia. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Srairi M.T.,Hassan II Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Institute | Benyoucef M.T.,Algeria National School of Agronomy | Kraiem K.,Higher Institute of Agricultural Science
SpringerPlus | Year: 2013

The Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) have experienced since the early 1950s a rapid demographic growth coupled to a significant rhythm of urbanization. This has led to a marked increase in the demand of dairy products. In order to secure the supply, specific policies have been implemented. They mainly consisted in the establishment of a dairy industry, based on the processing of either raw milk produced locally (in Morocco and Tunisia) or imported milk powder (in Algeria). These divergent options have had significant consequences on the whole organization of the dairy chains in these countries, from cattle rearing practices, to milk collection and processing. They have also implied differences in milk and its derivatives' prices and levels of consumption. The paper draws a comparative analysis of milk chains within the three countries: a supply mainly based on imports in Algeria, whereas in Morocco and Tunisia, the demand is satisfied by a chain relying on locally produced cattle milk. The paper also emphasizes on the future challenges that will have to be addressed: a rising volatility of milk and other strategic inputs' prices (feed, machinery, cattle, etc.) in global markets, an improvement in consumers' awareness about milk quality, a further pressure on natural resources (mainly soils and water) to get more raw milk, in countries already suffering an acute water stress. The article also establishes recommendations about specific issues related to the development of the dairy chains in the context of North Africa. These are mainly linked to the fragmented offer induced by numerous smallholder farms, which implies obvious difficulties to assess the hygienic and the chemical quality of milk batches delivered daily. Moreover, this fragmented offer also means that specific support programs will have to be designed, as the vast majority of farms are not dairy specialized, expecting both milk and calf crop from their herds. © 2013 Kumar et al.


Gaaliche B.,Higher Institute of Agricultural science | Trad M.,Higher Institute of Agricultural science | Hfaiedh L.,Higher Institute of Agricultural science | Lakhal W.,Higher Institute of Agricultural science | Mars M.,Higher Institute of Agricultural science
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) is one of the well adapted species to arid and semi-arid conditions. Its cultivation in Tunisia is traditional and local cultivars are numerous. The cultivar Zidi (Smyrna type) with absolute need of caprification is well spread in the country for its high commercial value and gustatory good quality which is appreciated by the consumer. This study was focused on the pomological and biochemical characterization of fig cv Zidi in various agro-ecological zones of Tunisia (south-east, center-east, north-east and north-west). Results showed significant differences for the studied parameters (fruit size, fruit shape, flesh thickness, ostiole width, total soluble solids) in different cultivation areas. The big size (96.4 g) and large flesh thickness (22.5 mm) of fruits were obtained in north-west (Djebba region); whereas the best taste of fruit was noticed in north-east (Mhamdia region) with a high sugar rate of 19°Brix and an average acidity of 0.18%. These differences reflect large agro-ecological adaptation in cv. Zidi that may be due to intra-varietal genetic variations which necessitate molecular studies in future. © 2012 Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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