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Van Ouytsel J.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science | Ponnet K.,Antwerp Maritime Academy | And 2 more authors.
Telematics and Informatics | Year: 2017

The purpose of this study is to analyze which components of the social learning theory are associated with adolescents' engagement in sexting among a sample of 357 respondents. Additionally, we distinguish between two types of online sexual self-disclosure: sexting within and outside of a romantic relationship. The results indicate that the extent to which adolescents hold positive attitudes towards the behavior and the extent to which they perceive that their peers approve of sexting, are associated with their engagement in sexting both within and outside of a romantic relationship, when controlling for age, gender, school track and internet use. Sexting outside of a romantic relationship was also influenced by the thrill that young people get out of engaging in this behavior. The discussion addresses the implications of these findings for prevention programs, practice and future research, such as the necessity for future studies to ask with whom participants have engaged in sexting. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Khazaee-pool M.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Moridi M.,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse | Year: 2016

Background: Predicting time to relapse provides an opportunity for the development of relapse prevention interventions in drug users. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to describe the development of the Persian version of the 9-item Time to Relapse Questionnaire (TRQ) and to evaluate its psychometric properties in an Iranian sample of treatment-seeking individuals with substance dependence (n = 150). Methods: The forward–backward method was used to translate the TRQ scale from English into Persian. After linguistic validation and a pilot check, a cross-sectional study was performed, and psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the questionnaire were assessed. The reliability was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha and test–retest analyses. In addition, the factor structure of the scale was extracted by applying confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The mean age of participants was 40.52 (SD = 11.30) years. The mean scores for the content validity index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR) were 0.93 and 0.81, respectively. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the three-factor model of the TRQ was a good fit for the data and thus replicated the factor structure of the original English language TRQ. Cronbach’s alpha presented good internal consistency (alpha = 0.76), and test–retest reliability of the TRQ instrument with 2-week intervals was appropriate (ICC = 0.84). Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that the Persian version of the TRQ is a reliable and valid scale for measuring time to relapse in Iranian drug users. The TRQ can be applied at the start of treatment so that clinical interventions can be targeted toward the different relapse styles. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Pashaei T.,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science | Moeeni M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers' intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equationmodeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers' neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one's daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. © 2016 Pashaei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Moeeni M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Moeeni M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Razaghi E.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | And 6 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Background: The aim of this study was to determine which predictors influence the risk of relapse among a cohort of amphetamine-type substance (ATS) users in Iran. Methods: A Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to determine factors associated with the relapse time in the Matrix treatment program provided by the Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies (INCAS) between March 2010 and October 2011. Results: Participating in more treatment sessions was associated with a lower probability of relapse. On the other hand, patients with less family support, longer dependence on ATS, and those with an experience of casual sex and a history of criminal offenses were more likely to relapse. Conclusion: This study broadens our understanding of factors influencing the risk of relapse in ATS use among an Iranian sample. The findings can guide practitioners during the treatment program. © 2016 The Author(s).

Van Ouytsel J.,University of Antwerp | Van Gool E.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2014

The potential emotional and legal consequences of adolescents' engagement in sending sexually explicit pictures through the internet or the mobile phone (i.e., sexting) have caused significant concern about the behavior among practitioners and academics. The present study compares the characteristics of students who engage in sexting to those who do not. A survey among 1028 adolescents of 11 secondary schools in Belgium was administered. Logistic regression analyses suggest that sexting is significantly linked with sensation seeking, experiential thinking styles and depression, while controlling for gender, age, family status and students' response to economic stress. The results are of importance to practitioners who could adapt their prevention and intervention campaigns to better reach this complex youth. Differences with the findings of previous studies highlight the importance of continuing research on sexting and the need to pay attention to the specific context in which adolescent sexting takes place. © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

Van Gool E.,University of Antwerp | Van Ouytsel J.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science | Walrave M.,University of Antwerp
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2015

Adolescents are the most fervent users of social network sites, hereby disclosing a lot of personal information. In this study, we used the Prototype Willingness Model to examine whether the sharing of personal information about peer relationships follows a rational and intended pathway, or a more impulsive unconscious decision-making pathway. Data from a sample of 1314 adolescents (M = 16.68, SD = 1.16) were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, to assess the predictive power of the reasoned pathway (attitude and subjective norm of friends, parents and teachers), and the social-reaction pathway (prototype favorability and similarity). Results showed the unique importance of the reasoned pathway in predicting adolescents' disclosing behavior, with attitude as the strongest predictor. Nevertheless, the social-reaction pathway also significantly contributed to the prediction of the disclosing behavior. In sum, adolescents' self-disclosure on social network sites is mostly the result of a rational, deliberated process, but can be influenced by a more emotional spontaneous response to a given online situation. Therefore, policy makers, practitioners or parents might stress the possible opportunities and risks that disclosing personal information can entail, so adolescents themselves develop a more critical attitude toward sharing their information online. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Van Ouytsel J.,University of Antwerp | Van Gool E.,University of Antwerp | Walrave M.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | And 2 more authors.
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2016

This study focuses on how adolescents perceive the ways in which romantic relationships are experienced and expressed through social networking sites. Eleven focus group conversations among 57 adolescents between 15 and 18 years old in Flanders, Belgium were analyzed. The findings demonstrate that social networking sites play an important role in relational information seeking. Pictures and status updates are regarded as the most important source of information about a potential romantic partner. In order to express romantic interest respondents indicated that they would like pictures and status updates from several years ago or that they would initiate a conversation through private messages. The respondents in our sample did not consider being Facebook Official as an important part of a romantic relationship. The adolescents recognized the potential of social networking sites to elicit jealousy and identified forms of controlling behavior such as sharing passwords or monitoring the partners' profiles. A romantic break-up often led to removing ex-partners from one's profile pages and adolescents most frequently observed the posting of emotional status updates by ex-partners as a result of the relationship dissolution. The discussion includes suggestions for future research and implications for practice. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Van Ouytsel J.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science | Ponnet K.,Free University of Colombia | Walrave M.,University of Antwerp
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2014

Several scholars have argued that adolescents' sexting behavior might be influenced by their media use. However, to date, empirical evidence of the link between media socialization and engagement in sexting behavior remains scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether music video and pornography consumption are able to predict a range of sexting behaviors among a sample of 329 adolescents with a mean age of 16.71 years (SD=0.74). The results demonstrate that sexting behaviors were significantly associated with the consumption of pornography, when controlling for age, gender, school track, and Internet use. Taking into account the gender of the adolescents, the significant relationship between engagement in the four types of sexting behavior and pornography use held true for both boys and girls. Music video consumption was only significantly associated with asking someone for a sexting message and having received a sexting message. Further analyses revealed that these significant relationships only held for boys. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science
Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Year: 2014

The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor–partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents’ financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents’ depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Heirman W.,University of Antwerp | Walrave M.,University of Antwerp | Vermeulen A.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | And 3 more authors.
Telematics and Informatics | Year: 2016

Drawing on a survey conducted among 1743 pupils in 16 Belgian secondary schools, this study applies an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) to adolescents' acceptance of friendship requests sent by online strangers on social network sites (SNSs). As demonstrated in the literature, random friending on social networking sites can heavily impact adolescents' safety online. Results yielded by means of Structural Equation Modeling show that the subjective norm with regard to the acceptance of strangers as SNS friends is the most important predictor, followed by PBC and attitude. Bonding social capital (an individual's disposal of strong, intimate ties) is negatively associated with attitude and subjective norm, whereas bridging social capital (an individual's disposal of weak, superficial ties) is positively associated with the three TPB antecedents. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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