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Khazaee-Pool M.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Majlessi F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Montazaeri A.,Institute for Health science Research | Pashaei T.,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.
BMC Women's Health | Year: 2016

Background: Breast cancer preventive behaviors have an extreme effect on women's health. Despite the benefits of preventive behaviors regarding breast cancer, they have not been implemented as routine care for healthy women. To assess this health issue, a reliable and valid scale is needed. The aim of the present study is to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new scale, called the ASSISTS, in order to identify factors that affect women's breast cancer prevention behaviors. Methods: A multi-phase instrument development method was performed to develop the questionnaire from February 2012 to September 2014. The item pool was generated based on secondary analyses of previous qualitative data. Then, content and face validity were applied to provide a pre-final version of the scale. The scale validation was conducted with a sample of women recruited from health centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The construct validity (both exploratory and confirmatory), convergent validity, discriminate validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest analysis of the questionnaire were tested. Results: Fifty-eight items were initially extracted from the secondary analysis of previous qualitative data. After content validity, this was reduced to 49 items. The exploratory factor analysis revealed seven factors (Attitude, supportive systems, self-efficacy, information seeking, stress management, stimulant and self-care) containing 33 items that jointly accounted for 60.62 % of the observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a model with appropriate fitness for the data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.68 to 0.85, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.98; which is well above the acceptable thresholds. Conclusion: The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for assessing factors affecting women's breast cancer prevention behaviors that can be used both in practice and in future studies. © 2016 Khazaee-Pool et al. Source


Moeeni M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Moeeni M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Razaghi E.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | And 6 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Background: The aim of this study was to determine which predictors influence the risk of relapse among a cohort of amphetamine-type substance (ATS) users in Iran. Methods: A Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to determine factors associated with the relapse time in the Matrix treatment program provided by the Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies (INCAS) between March 2010 and October 2011. Results: Participating in more treatment sessions was associated with a lower probability of relapse. On the other hand, patients with less family support, longer dependence on ATS, and those with an experience of casual sex and a history of criminal offenses were more likely to relapse. Conclusion: This study broadens our understanding of factors influencing the risk of relapse in ATS use among an Iranian sample. The findings can guide practitioners during the treatment program. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Khazaee-pool M.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Moridi M.,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse | Year: 2016

Background: Predicting time to relapse provides an opportunity for the development of relapse prevention interventions in drug users. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to describe the development of the Persian version of the 9-item Time to Relapse Questionnaire (TRQ) and to evaluate its psychometric properties in an Iranian sample of treatment-seeking individuals with substance dependence (n = 150). Methods: The forward–backward method was used to translate the TRQ scale from English into Persian. After linguistic validation and a pilot check, a cross-sectional study was performed, and psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the questionnaire were assessed. The reliability was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha and test–retest analyses. In addition, the factor structure of the scale was extracted by applying confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The mean age of participants was 40.52 (SD = 11.30) years. The mean scores for the content validity index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR) were 0.93 and 0.81, respectively. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the three-factor model of the TRQ was a good fit for the data and thus replicated the factor structure of the original English language TRQ. Cronbach’s alpha presented good internal consistency (alpha = 0.76), and test–retest reliability of the TRQ instrument with 2-week intervals was appropriate (ICC = 0.84). Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that the Persian version of the TRQ is a reliable and valid scale for measuring time to relapse in Iranian drug users. The TRQ can be applied at the start of treatment so that clinical interventions can be targeted toward the different relapse styles. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Source


Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science
Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Year: 2014

The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor–partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents’ financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents’ depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Van Gool E.,University of Antwerp | Van Ouytsel J.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,University of Antwerp | Ponnet K.,Higher Institute for Family science | Walrave M.,University of Antwerp
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2015

Adolescents are the most fervent users of social network sites, hereby disclosing a lot of personal information. In this study, we used the Prototype Willingness Model to examine whether the sharing of personal information about peer relationships follows a rational and intended pathway, or a more impulsive unconscious decision-making pathway. Data from a sample of 1314 adolescents (M = 16.68, SD = 1.16) were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, to assess the predictive power of the reasoned pathway (attitude and subjective norm of friends, parents and teachers), and the social-reaction pathway (prototype favorability and similarity). Results showed the unique importance of the reasoned pathway in predicting adolescents' disclosing behavior, with attitude as the strongest predictor. Nevertheless, the social-reaction pathway also significantly contributed to the prediction of the disclosing behavior. In sum, adolescents' self-disclosure on social network sites is mostly the result of a rational, deliberated process, but can be influenced by a more emotional spontaneous response to a given online situation. Therefore, policy makers, practitioners or parents might stress the possible opportunities and risks that disclosing personal information can entail, so adolescents themselves develop a more critical attitude toward sharing their information online. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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