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Adibian M.,Higher Educational Complex of Saravan | Olfati J.A.,Guilan University | Davoodi S.,Guilan University
International Journal of Vegetable Science

Understanding the method of inheritance is valuable for breeding watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars with desired seed size. Local open-pollinated landrace were used to investigate inheritance of watermelon seed size. Seed length in 1000 seed was measured. Seed > 20 mm were used. Seed length of 1000 seed of the next generation was measured. Improvement of seed length in response to selection was used to calculate narrow-sense heritability. Mean seed length of landrace was 19.0 mm. Seed used to produce the next generation had a mean length of 20.46 mm. The next generation had a mean seed length of 17.6 mm, a decrease of 14%. Both selection differential and absolute magnitude response to selection was 1.4. Diversity between large seeds is not genetic but likely due to environment. Selection is not recommended for seed size improvement and hybridization may be more suitable for this goal. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Source

Alikhani-Koupaei M.,Higher Educational Complex of Saravan
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods

Bananas processed as fresh-cut products are highly sensitive to browning and softening. New post-harvest methods, such as the use of essential oils, are imperfect for preserving banana slices long enough to be marketable. To enable control release of oil and increases in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, we successfully incorporated oil into liposome to form liposomal oil. The effects of oil and liposomal oil of rosemary combined with mucilage on the quality of fresh-cut banana were examined. Banana slices were subjected to a 5 min dip into solutions (1% rosemary oil (Ro), 1% rosemary oil plus 2% mucilage (Mu+Ro) and 1% rosemary liposomal oil plus 2% mucilage (Mu+LipoRo)) before being placed in a plastic tray and covered with a 0.04-mm thick plastic bag with six small pores in each bag. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 9 days storage at 5 °C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and the decrease of polyphenoloxidase and lipoxygenase activities during storage. There were small changes in colour, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids values and total phenolic content. Sensory analyses showed that minimally processed bananas were within the acceptable limits during 9 days of storage at 5 °C and Mu+LipoRo treatment had the greatest effect. The use of Mu+LipoRo preserves fresh-cut bananas for up to 9 days after processing and the results suggest that Mu+LipoRo treatment has the potential to improve the quality of fresh-cut bananas and extend their shelf life. © 2014 Wageningen Academic Publishers. Source

Adibian M.,Higher Educational Complex of Saravan | Mami Y.,Guilan University
European Journal of Horticultural Science

This project was done to study the effects of supplementing casing with ground corn and soybean seed applied at: 0 (control), 17, 34 and 51 g per 5 kg peat on color, weight loss, electrolyte leakage rate, total soluble solids, vitamin C, total phenol and antioxidant capacity of Agaricus bisporus. There were significant differences between supplemented and non-supplemented casings. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms grown on casing supplemented with corn at 51 g per 5 kg peat contained more phenols than other treatments. The lowest amount of antioxidants in mushrooms was observed in the control. In addition, treatment of 51 g per 5 kg soybean and corn caused the highest total soluble solids. The color parameters for the color change of the materials were quantified by the hunter L (whiteness/darkness), a (redness/greenness) and b(yellowness/blueness) system. There were significant differences in mushrooms L*, a* and b* values in storage times of 8, 12 and 16 days among different supplements. Mushrooms supplemented with 51 g soybean and corn appeared to have higher L* values compared with other treatments. Amounts of protein content, electrolyte leakage, vitamin C and weight loss were significant if levels go up or down with storage time. The highest vitamin C, protein and antioxidant capacity were obtained with 34 and 51 g soybeans and 34 g corn, respectively. Results suggest that adding supplements in the casing increased the nutritional quality and shelf-life of mushrooms. © ISHS 2015. Source

Hosseini S.J.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Kermanshahi H.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Nassirimoghaddam H.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Nabipour A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Avicola

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans (WC) fruit and 1.25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1.25-(OH)2 D3) on bone mineralization, mechanical and histological properties of male broiler chickens at 21 and 42 d of age. A total of six hundred male day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement with 12 treatments of five replicates of 10 birds each. Treatments consisted of two basal diets (positive control with adequate Ca level and negative control with 30% less Ca), three levels of WC (0, 100, or 200 mg/kg diet), and two levels of 1.25-(OH)2 D3 (0 or 0.5 μg/kg diet). Birds were housed in floor pens. The diets were fed ad libitum from one to 42 days of age. On day 21 and 42, one bird per replicate was sacrificed and its tibiae were removed. Both Ca and P retention increased when dietary Ca level was reduced (p<0.001). The addition of 200 mg WC/kg to positive control diet increased Ca retention (p<0.01). Except for tibia diameter, no significant main effects of experimental treatments were observed on tibia physical characteristics or on bone mineralization. The diet with 30% Ca reduction decreased tibia diameter at 42 days of age (p<0.05). The dietary addition of 1.25-(OH)2D3 increased tibia fracture energy, width of tibia mineralized zone, and serum Ca at 42 days of age (p<0.05). At 21 days of age, supplementation of 100 mg WC/kg increased cortical thickness (p<0.05). At 42 days of age, supplementation of 100 mg WC/kg increased tibia shear force (p<0.05) and fracture energy (p<0.01). The results of this experiment showed that supplementation of 100 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of WC fruit increased tibia cortical thickness, shear force, and fracture energy. © 2016, Fundacao APINCO de Ciencia e Tecnologia Avicolas. All rights reserved. Source

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