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Islamabad, Pakistan

Ashraf M.,University of Sargodha | Abid M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University | Shahzad S.M.,University of Sargodha | And 2 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2015

The relationships between salinity and mineral nutrition are extremely complex and may change depending on many factors in soil-plant system. We investigated the contribution of silicon (Si at 50 mg kg−1 soil) and potassium (K at 40 and 60 mg K2O kg−1 soil) to improve salt tolerance in sunflower grown with 100 mM sodium chloride (NaCl). The experimental design was factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. Added NaCl increased sodium ion (Na+) accumulation by 966 percent in shoots and 1200 percent in roots but reduced shoot potassium ion (K+) concentration by 49 percent, root K+ 51 percent, and shoot K+/Na+ ratio 95 percent. However, Si and K application effectively reduced Na+ accumulation and increased K+ concentration and K+:Na+ ratio, with a significant improvement in plant growth and yield. Among all treatments, greater alleviative effects of Si and K were observed for 50 mg Si + 60 mg K2O kg−1 soil, which decreased shoot Na+ concentration by 67 percent, root Na+ 18 percent, and shoot Na+/root Na+ ratio 60 percent and increased shoot K+ by 198 percent, shoot K+/Na+ ratio 812 percent, membrane stability index (MSI) 35 percent, relative water content (RWC) 26 percent, and seed weight head−1 86 percent compared to salt-stressed plants without supplemental Si and K. Most of the plant growth parameters were negatively correlated with Na+ accumulation but positively correlated with K+ and K+/Na+ ratio. This study suggests that Si and K mediated reduction in Na+ accumulation, and increase in K+ concentration, K+/Na+ ratio, RWC, and MSI are the main factors contributing to improved adaptation capability of sunflower to NaCl stress. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Mir A.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Anjum F.,Higher Education Commission HEC | Riaz N.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Iqbal H.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2010

Solanum nigrum is used in hepatic disorders in folk medicines. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of S. nigrum on the liver functions in CCl 4 induced injuries. Enzymatic activities that are. AST, ALT and ALP, microscopic appearance of liver was used as parameter and hepatocurative studies were performed. In case of hepatocurative study that is post treatment of rats with aqueous extracts of plant (500mg/ orally, two doses with 24 h interval) prevented (p < 0.001) CCl 4 induced rise in activity of serum Transaminases (ALT and AST) and ALP and alcoholic extract did not prevent the rise of same enzymes compared to the sham control group in which liver was damaged by CCl 4 no treatment given. Histological examination of the liver of treated animals with aqueous extract of plant showed that fatty acids change was less in comparison to the sham control group. In treated group reduction in body weight was minimal and live enlargement was also less compared to the animals in sham control group. Treatment with aqueous extract of S. nigrum effectively attenuated the alteration within the parameter of present study and accredits the hepatocurative role of S. nigrum. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source

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