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Mishra N.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Rajukumar K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kalaiyarasu S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dubey S.C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dubey S.C.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

The genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae comprises 4 recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Among ruminant pestiviruses, BVDV/BDV infections occur worldwide and due to its economic importance, BVD is listed by O I E as a priority cattle disease for international trade. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in several countries with prevalence rates varying from 0-90% in cattle and 0-50% in sheep. Ruminant pestiviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, as displayed by identification of 16 subtypes within BVDV-1, 2 subtypes within BVDV-2 and 7 subtypes within BDV species. Heterogeneity in host spectrum, virulence and clinical signs provide further challenges in disease diagnosis and control. Both large and small ruminants form backbone of the livestock sector in India. BVD was earlier considered exotic despite serological evidence of BVDV infection reported during 1980's and 90's. The first confirmatory evidence of BVD by virus isolation from cattle was reported in 2004, followed by its detection in sheep, buffalo, yak and goats. Later reports established the predominant occurrence of BVDV-1 and sporadic occurrence of BVDV-2, with BVDV-1b, BVDV-1c, BVDV-2a and BVDV-2b genotypes identified in various species of ruminants. Furthermore, moderate pathogenicity of BVDV-1 was demonstrated in experimentally infected cattle. A systematic surveillance of ruminant pestiviruses and their economic implications need to be taken up in future. In this review, we discuss the current status of ruminant pestivirus infections in India besides highlighting the gaps in current knowledge with regard to epidemiology, diagnosis and control. Source

Chaturvedi U.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kalim S.,Bundelkhand University | Desai G.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | Ratta B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2011

Newcastle disease (ND) is highly contagious, economically important viral disease affecting most of avian species worldwide. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has single stranded negative sense RNA genome which encodes for six structural and two non-structural proteins. Envelope glycoproteins i.e. hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion (F), elicit protective immune response. In this study, HN and F genes of velogenic (virulent) strain were amplified and cloned at multiple cloning sites A and B, respectively into pIRES bicistronic vector for use as bivalent DNA vaccine against ND. The recombinant plasmid was characterized for its orientation by restriction enzyme digestion and PCR. Expression of HN and F genes was assessed in transfected Vero cells at RNA level using RT-PCR in total RNA as well as protein level using IFAT, IPT and western blot using NDV specific antiserum. All these experiments confirmed that HN and F genes cloned in recombinant pIRES.nd.hn.f are functionally active. The recombinant construct is being evaluated as DNA vaccine against ND. Source

Singh N.D.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Sharma A.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dwivedi P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Leishangthem G.D.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2016

The objective of the present study was to study the effect of graded doses of citrinin (CIT) on apoptosis and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats till F1 generation. The animals were divided into four groups comprising 25 males and 25 females each, that is, group I: 1 ppm CIT; group II: 3 ppm CIT; group III: 5 ppm CIT; and group IV was kept as a control. The male and female animals of all the groups were kept separately and were fed basal rations containing the above-mentioned concentrations of CIT for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, male and female animals of respective groups were kept for mating (one male/two females). After getting 10 pregnant females, the males were killed. These 10 pregnant females were allowed to give birth to young ones (F1 generation) naturally which were fed CIT in the above-mentioned doses till the age of 6 weeks and then were killed. Apoptosis was analysed in kidneys, liver and testes by DNA ladder pattern, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling assay and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Besides, tissue oxidative stress was also analysed. It was concluded in the present study that CIT induces its toxic effects till F1 generation, and apoptosis and oxidative stress both play a very important role in toxicity. The effect of CIT was observed in a dose-dependent manner. However, in kidneys, both the mechanisms (apoptosis and oxidative stress) play their role in inflicting renal damage, while in liver only reactive oxygen species play a major role. Finally, the CIT toxicity did not lead to apoptosis and oxidative stress in male gonads till F1 generation. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Qureshi M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Tosh C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Tosh C.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | Nagarajan S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

In this study, an avian influenza virus isolated from chicken in Tripura in 2011 was characterized by sequencing all the 8 segments of the virus. The HA cleavage site possessed multi-basic amino acids suggesting highly pathogenic avian influenza. Based on sequence data, virus is sensitive to commonly used anti-influenza drugs. The virus belonged to clade and is closely related to 2011 virus isolated in Bangladesh. The multiple amino acid substitutions in the HA antigenic sites could be the cause of antigenic diversity between clades 2.2.2 and reported earlier. Co-circulation of multiple clades of H5N1 virus in neighbouring countries highlights the need for improved avian influenza surveillance in India. Source

Singh N.D.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma A.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Leishangthem G.D.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Kumar M.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2014

Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals. Source

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