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Rajawat S.,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology | Kurchania R.,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology | Rajukumar K.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | Pitale S.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Green Processing and Synthesis | Year: 2016

In the present work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using an easy, simple, and environment-friendly method based on principles of green chemistry in the absence of a sophisticated laboratory, and their anti-cancer properties were studied. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using electrolytic deposition. As-synthesized nanoparticles were capped using black tea leaf extract. MTT assay was used to investigate anti-cancer activity. X-ray diffraction graphs show highly pure as-synthesized silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy images show well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles, with an average size of 9 and 15 nm, corresponding to different values of parameters used in the synthesis. For the MCF-7 cancer cell lines, 100% growth inhibition is obtained. The 50% growth inhibition concentration values against MCF-7 cancer cell lines were obtained at 70- and 30-fold dilutions of colloidal silver of almost the same concentration, 178 μg/ml, for both configurations. Silver nanoparticles can be synthesized, and their morphology can be tuned using the electrolytic deposition method with black tea leaf extract as capping agent. Silver nanoparticles with an average size of 9 nm are more effective those with an average size of 15 nm. The synthesis method is faster, cheaper, and environment friendly and renders a treatment option that can have high accessibility, reduced harmful side effects, and increased economic benefits. © 2016 by De Gruyter.


Kumar A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Muhasin Asaf V.N.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Raut A.A.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | Sood R.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | Mishra A.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights | Year: 2014

Highly pathogenic Avian influenza (HPAI) is a notifiable viral disease caused by avian influenza type A viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family. Type A influenza genome consists of eight segments of negative-sense RNA. RNA segment 2 encodes three proteins, PB1, PB1-F2, and N40, which are translated from the same mRNA by ribosomal leaky scanning and reinitiation. Since these proteins are critical for viral replication and pathogenesis, targeting their expression can be one of the approaches to control and resist HPAI. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that regulate a variety of biological processes such as cell growth, tissue differentiation, apoptosis, and viral infection. In this study, a set of 300 miRNAs expressed in chicken lungs were screened against the HPAI virus (H5N1) segment 2 with different screening parameter like thermodynamic stability of heteroduplex, seed sequence complementarity, conserved target sequence, and target-site accessibility for identifying miRNAs that can potentially target the transcript of segment 2 of H5N1. Chicken miRNAs gga-mir-133c, gga-mir-1710, and gga-mir-146c* are predicted to target the expression of PB1, PB1-F2, and N40 proteins. This indicates that chicken has genetic potential to resist/tolerate H5N1 infection and these can be suitably exploited in designing strategies for control of avian influenza in chicken. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited.


Mishra N.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Rajukumar K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kalaiyarasu S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dubey S.C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dubey S.C.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

The genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae comprises 4 recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Among ruminant pestiviruses, BVDV/BDV infections occur worldwide and due to its economic importance, BVD is listed by O I E as a priority cattle disease for international trade. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in several countries with prevalence rates varying from 0-90% in cattle and 0-50% in sheep. Ruminant pestiviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, as displayed by identification of 16 subtypes within BVDV-1, 2 subtypes within BVDV-2 and 7 subtypes within BDV species. Heterogeneity in host spectrum, virulence and clinical signs provide further challenges in disease diagnosis and control. Both large and small ruminants form backbone of the livestock sector in India. BVD was earlier considered exotic despite serological evidence of BVDV infection reported during 1980's and 90's. The first confirmatory evidence of BVD by virus isolation from cattle was reported in 2004, followed by its detection in sheep, buffalo, yak and goats. Later reports established the predominant occurrence of BVDV-1 and sporadic occurrence of BVDV-2, with BVDV-1b, BVDV-1c, BVDV-2a and BVDV-2b genotypes identified in various species of ruminants. Furthermore, moderate pathogenicity of BVDV-1 was demonstrated in experimentally infected cattle. A systematic surveillance of ruminant pestiviruses and their economic implications need to be taken up in future. In this review, we discuss the current status of ruminant pestivirus infections in India besides highlighting the gaps in current knowledge with regard to epidemiology, diagnosis and control.


Singh N.D.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Sharma A.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dwivedi P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Leishangthem G.D.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2016

The objective of the present study was to study the effect of graded doses of citrinin (CIT) on apoptosis and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats till F1 generation. The animals were divided into four groups comprising 25 males and 25 females each, that is, group I: 1 ppm CIT; group II: 3 ppm CIT; group III: 5 ppm CIT; and group IV was kept as a control. The male and female animals of all the groups were kept separately and were fed basal rations containing the above-mentioned concentrations of CIT for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, male and female animals of respective groups were kept for mating (one male/two females). After getting 10 pregnant females, the males were killed. These 10 pregnant females were allowed to give birth to young ones (F1 generation) naturally which were fed CIT in the above-mentioned doses till the age of 6 weeks and then were killed. Apoptosis was analysed in kidneys, liver and testes by DNA ladder pattern, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling assay and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Besides, tissue oxidative stress was also analysed. It was concluded in the present study that CIT induces its toxic effects till F1 generation, and apoptosis and oxidative stress both play a very important role in toxicity. The effect of CIT was observed in a dose-dependent manner. However, in kidneys, both the mechanisms (apoptosis and oxidative stress) play their role in inflicting renal damage, while in liver only reactive oxygen species play a major role. Finally, the CIT toxicity did not lead to apoptosis and oxidative stress in male gonads till F1 generation. © The Author(s) 2013.


Khandia R.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | Pattnaik B.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | Rajukumar K.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | Pateriya A.K.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

In the present study, 27 field materials from different sources were tested in SYBR Green I dye based Real Time PCR optimized using WHO recommended conventional PCR primers targeting Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) gene of pX01 plasmid. The assay had detection limit of 0.000002 pg in terms of target DNA quantity and up to 4 copies of pX01 plasmid per reaction, in terms of copy number. Melt curve analysis of PCR products of field samples showed deviation up to 3.2°C in melting temperature from standard anthrax strain suggestive of possible mutation/ mutations in PA gene. Targeted region of PA (596 bp) encompasses domain 2, involved in its binding with lethal factor (LF) and/or edema factor (EF) and mutation in this region may alter the efficacy of PA to traffic toxins inside the cells and results in differed level of virulence of pathogen. The test is useful not only for detection but may be suggestive of mutation also.


Sood R.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory | Hemadri D.,Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Bhatia S.,High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
Indian Journal of Virology | Year: 2013

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease affecting bovids, cervids and other ruminant species caused by viruses belonging to subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, genus Macavirus. Among the 10 MCF viruses known to cause the disease, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) are the two most widely prevalent causative organisms. The AlHV-1 naturally infects wildebeest and causes wildebeest associated MCF (WA-MCF) in cattle in regions of African sub-continent. The OvHV-2 is prevalent in all varieties of domestic sheep as a sub-clinical infection and causes sheep associated MCF (SA-MCF) in susceptible ruminants in most regions of the world. In India, the detection of cases of SA-MCF in cattle and OvHV-2 infection in sheep during the last decade has established the presence of the virus in native sheep of the country. The present review presents up to date information on various aspects of SA-MCF and its causative agent OvHV-2 with special reference to Indian scenario. © Indian Virological Society 2013.


PubMed | Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, High Security Animal Disease Laboratory and All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology and industrial health | Year: 2016

The objective of the present study was to study the effect of graded doses of citrinin (CIT) on apoptosis and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats till F1 generation. The animals were divided into four groups comprising 25 males and 25 females each, that is, group I: 1 ppm CIT; group II: 3 ppm CIT; group III: 5 ppm CIT; and group IV was kept as a control. The male and female animals of all the groups were kept separately and were fed basal rations containing the above-mentioned concentrations of CIT for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, male and female animals of respective groups were kept for mating (one male/two females). After getting 10 pregnant females, the males were killed. These 10 pregnant females were allowed to give birth to young ones (F1 generation) naturally which were fed CIT in the above-mentioned doses till the age of 6 weeks and then were killed. Apoptosis was analysed in kidneys, liver and testes by DNA ladder pattern, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling assay and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Besides, tissue oxidative stress was also analysed. It was concluded in the present study that CIT induces its toxic effects till F1 generation, and apoptosis and oxidative stress both play a very important role in toxicity. The effect of CIT was observed in a dose-dependent manner. However, in kidneys, both the mechanisms (apoptosis and oxidative stress) play their role in inflicting renal damage, while in liver only reactive oxygen species play a major role. Finally, the CIT toxicity did not lead to apoptosis and oxidative stress in male gonads till F1 generation.


PubMed | High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of microbiology | Year: 2012

The 2009 H1N1 pandemic has slowed down its spread after initial speed of transmission. The conventional swine influenza H1N1 virus (SIV) in pig populations worldwide needs to be differentiated from pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, however it is also essential to know about the exact role of pigs in the spread and mutations taking place in pig-to-pig transmission. The present paper reviews epidemiological features of classical SIV and its differentiation with pandemic influenza.


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute and High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Bioinformatics and biology insights | Year: 2014

Highly pathogenic Avian influenza (HPAI) is a notifiable viral disease caused by avian influenza type A viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family. Type A influenza genome consists of eight segments of negative-sense RNA. RNA segment 2 encodes three proteins, PB1, PB1-F2, and N40, which are translated from the same mRNA by ribosomal leaky scanning and reinitiation. Since these proteins are critical for viral replication and pathogenesis, targeting their expression can be one of the approaches to control and resist HPAI. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that regulate a variety of biological processes such as cell growth, tissue differentiation, apoptosis, and viral infection. In this study, a set of 300 miRNAs expressed in chicken lungs were screened against the HPAI virus (H5N1) segment 2 with different screening parameter like thermodynamic stability of heteroduplex, seed sequence complementarity, conserved target sequence, and target-site accessibility for identifying miRNAs that can potentially target the transcript of segment 2 of H5N1. Chicken miRNAs gga-mir-133c, gga-mir-1710, and gga-mir-146c* are predicted to target the expression of PB1, PB1-F2, and N40 proteins. This indicates that chicken has genetic potential to resist/tolerate H5N1 infection and these can be suitably exploited in designing strategies for control of avian influenza in chicken.


PubMed | High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular biology | Year: 2012

Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. The DGAT1 gene is a strong functional candidate for determining milk fat content in cattle. In this work, we used PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing to examine polymorphism in the region spanning exon 7 to exon 9 of the DGAT1 gene in Murrah and Pandharpuri buffaloes. Three alleles (A, B and C) and four novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the buffalo DGAT1 gene. The frequencies of the alleles differed between the two buffalo breeds, with allele C being present in Murrah but not in Pandharpuri buffalo. The allele variation detected in this work may influence DGAT1 expression and function. The results described here could be useful in examining the association between the DGAT1 gene and milk traits in buffalo.

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