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High Point, NC, United States

High Point University is a private liberal arts university in High Point, North Carolina, U.S., affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Founded as High Point College in 1924, it became High Point University in October 1991. Wikipedia.

Smoliga J.M.,High Point University | Sage Colombo E.,University of New Mexico | Campen M.J.,University of New Mexico
Aging | Year: 2013

In recent years, the wealth of basic science research supporting resveratrol's potential to treat, delay, and even prevent age-related chronic diseases has led to a number of human clinical trials. While such translational research has yielded promising results in clinical populations, recently published conflicting results from studies evaluating resveratrol's potential for primary prevention of chronic disease in healthy / asymptomatic individuals have generated considerable controversy and do not initially appear consistent with findings from animal models. We argue that trials targeting healthy humans are often fundamentally flawed owing to inappropriate use of paradigms only applicable to populations with overt clinical disease and the consequent misleading (typically negative) results can severely retard advancement of drug development. To appropriately perform translational research centered on resveratrol as a primary prevention agent in non-clinical populations, it is critical to utilize study designs which can provide adequate information on clinically relevant outcome measures, avoid paradigms and assumptions from interventions which are specific to clinical populations, and maintain realistic expectations compared to interventions which provide the theoretical maximal response (e.g., caloric restriction and aerobic exercise training). © Smoliga et al. Source

Cutrufello P.T.,University of Scranton | Smoliga J.M.,High Point University | Rundell K.W.,Pharmaxis
Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

The increased risk of morbidity and mortality among adults and children with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory illness from emission-derived particulate matter (PM) is well documented. However, the detrimental effects of PM inhalation on the exercising, healthy population is still in question. This review will focus on the acute and chronic responses to PM inhalation during exercise and how PM exposure influences exercise performance. The smaller ultrafine PM ( <0.01μm aerodynamic diameter) appears to have the most severe health consequences compared with the larger coarse PM (2.5 < PM<10μm aerodynamic diameter). While the response to PM inhalation may affect those with a pre-existing condition, the healthy population is not immune to the effects of PM inhalation, especially during exercise. This population, including the competitive athlete, is susceptible to pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function (both acute and chronic in nature), the increased risk of asthma, vascular endothelial dysfunction, mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressure and diminished exercise performance. PM exposure is usually associated with vehicular traffic, but other sources of PM, including small engines from lawn and garden equipment, cigarette smoke, wood smoke and cooking, may also impair health and performance. The physiological effects of PM are dependent on the source of PM, various environmental factors, physical attributes and nature of exercise. There are a number of measures an athlete can take to reduce exposure to PM, as well as the deleterious effects that result from the inevitable exposure to PM. Considering the acute and chronic physiological responses to PM inhalation, individuals living and exercising in urban areas in close proximity to major roadways should consider ambient air pollution levels (in particular, PM and ozone) prior to engaging in vigorous exercise, and those exposed to PM through other sources may need to make lifestyle alterations to avoid the deleterious effects of PM inhalation. Although it is clear that PM exposure is detrimental to healthy individuals engaging in exercise, further research is necessary to better understand the role of PM on athlete health and performance, as well as measures that can attenuate the harmful effects of PM. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved. Source

Objective: To examine the effect of 109 days of caprylic triglyceride (CT) in a 70-year-old male with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Background: Cerebral metabolism is limited to glucose under most conditions, and diminished cerebral glucose metabolism is a characteristic feature of AD. Another substrate available for cerebral metabolism is ketone bodies. Ketone bodies (KB) are normally derived from fat stores under conditions of low glucose availability as an alternative energy substrate to glucose. KB can also be produced by oral administration of CT. Prior studies suggest that the alternative energy source of CT may improve cognitive function due to mild to moderate AD, by circumventing the diminished glucose metabolism. Method: The effect of CT was analyzed in a single-case of mild AD with cognitive alterations in an open label study. Study outcomes included the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), mini mental state exam (MMSE), and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F) positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scans. Results: After 109 days of CT, MoCA scores changed from a baseline value of 24-28, and MMSE scores changed from 23 to 28. No changes were observed on FDG PET scans. Conclusion: The results suggest that, in a case of mild AD, CT may have affected cognitive function, assessed by means of MMSE and MoCA, although glucose uptake and metabolism remained unchanged. Source

Scott R.S.,Rutgers University | Teaford M.F.,High Point University | Ungar P.S.,University of Arkansas
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2012

Dental microwear has long been used as evidence concerning the diets of extinct species. Here, we present a comparative baseline series of dental microwear textures for a sample of 21 anthropoid primate species displaying interspecific and intraspecific dietary variability. Four dental microwear texture variables (complexity, anisotropy, textural fill volume, and heterogeneity) were computed based on scale-sensitive fractal analysis and high-resolution three-dimensional renderings of microwear surfaces collected using a white-light confocal profiler. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the extent to which these variables reflect variation in diet. Significant contrasts between species with diets known to include foods with differing material properties are clearly evident for all four microwear texture variables. In particular, species that consume more tough foods, such as leaves, tended to have high levels of anisotropy and low texture complexity. The converse was true for species including hard and brittle items in their diets either as staples or as fallback foods. These results reaffirm the utility of dental microwear texture analysis as an important tool in making dietary inferences based on fossil primate samples. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2012. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Valenciennes 1844) and silver carp (H. molitrix Richardson 1845), collectively called bigheaded carps, have invaded the Mississippi River Basin and may have already entered the Laurentian Great Lakes where they could affect fishing and other industries. Developing models to predict potential spread and effects is difficult because local adaptation may have occurred among populations, parameter values for biological characteristics vary widely for these opportunistic generalists, and methodological differences complicate comparison and synthesis of studies. I review bigheaded carp biological parameters across a wide range of literature, including studies of native and introduced populations. I then evaluate how predictive models are parameterized, noting inconsistencies and highlighting data gaps. My analysis finds that although parameter values tend to vary substantially among and within systems, models are generally parameterized using the best information available, although bioenergetics and trophic models particularly need improvement. Some predictive tools can be updated using existing data (e.g., velocity requirements for spawning), but in other cases further research is needed. Research priorities include (1) better understanding bigheaded carp phenotypic plasticity among and within systems, (2) determining key biological traits of bigheaded carp populations at risk of seeding further invasions (e.g., Illinois River populations that may spread to Lake Michigan), and (3) monitoring bigheaded carp ecological effects on native fishes and plankton communities. A more complete awareness of strengths and limitations of predictive tools will lead to their improvement, thereby aiding managers in anticipating and counteracting bigheaded carp spread and effects. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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