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Guo H.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Golaz J.-C.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Donner L.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Ginoux P.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Hemler R.S.,High Performance Technologies Inc.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2014

A unified turbulence and cloud parameterization based on multivariate probability density functions (PDFs) has been incorporated into the GFDL atmospheric general circulation model (AM3). This PDFbased parameterization not only predicts subgrid variations in vertical velocity, temperature, and total water, which bridge subgrid-scale processes (e.g., aerosol activation and cloud microphysics) and grid-scale dynamic and thermodynamic fields, but also unifies the treatment of planetary boundary layer (PBL), shallow convection, and cloud macrophysics. This parameterization is called the Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB) parameterization. With the incorporation of CLUBB in AM3, coupled with a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme, AM3-CLUBB allows for a more physically based and self-consistent treatment of aerosol activation, cloud micro- and macrophysics, PBL, and shallow convection. The configuration and performance of AM3-CLUBB are described. Cloud and radiation fields, as well as most basic climate features, are modeled realistically. Relative to AM3, AM3-CLUBB improves the simulation of coastal stratocumulus, a longstanding deficiency in GFDL models, and their seasonal cycle, especially at higher horizontal resolution, but global skill scores deteriorate slightly. Through sensitivity experiments, it is shown that 1) the two-moment cloud microphysics helps relieve the deficiency of coastal stratocumulus, 2) using the CLUBB subgrid cloud water variability in the cloud microphysics has a considerable positive impact on global cloudiness, and 3) the impact of adjusting CLUBB parameters is to improve the overall agreement between model and observations. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source

Katz L.E.,University of Texas at Austin | Criscenti L.J.,Sandia National Laboratories | Chen C.-C.,University of Texas at Austin | Larentzos J.P.,High Performance Technologies Inc. | Liljestrand H.M.,University of Texas at Austin
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2013

Two approaches, macroscopic adsorption experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, were employed to study the effect of temperature on alkaline earth metals adsorption on gibbsite surfaces. Increased reaction temperature enhanced the extent of metal ion adsorption for all of the alkaline earth metals studied. Whereas Mg2+ and Sr2+ adsorption displayed dependence on ionic strength, Sr2+ adsorption exhibited less dependence on background ionic strength regardless of temperature. The ionic strength dependence was attributed to outer-sphere complexation reactions. The ionic strength effect on metal ion removal decreased with increasing temperature for both metals. Ba2+ removal by gibbsite, on the other hand, was not affected by ionic strength. Results from molecular dynamics simulations were in agreement with the findings of the experimental study. The amount of thermal energy required to remove waters of hydration from the metal cation and the ratio of outer-sphere to inner-sphere complexation decreased with increasing ionic radii. It was observed from both macroscopic and molecular approaches that the tendency to form inner-sphere complexes on gibbsite decreased in the order: Ba2+>Sr2+>Mg2+ and that the common assumption that alkaline earth metal ions form outer-sphere complexes appears to be dependent on ionic radius and temperature. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Hellberg C.S.,Center for Computational Materials Science | Andersen K.E.,High Performance Technologies Inc. | Li H.,Shenzhen New Degree Technology Co. | Ryan P.J.,Argonne National Laboratory | Woicik J.C.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The epitaxial deposition of oxides on silicon opens the possibility of incorporating their diverse properties into silicon-device technology. Deposition of SrTiO 3 on silicon was first reported over a decade ago, but growing the coherent, lattice-matched films that are critical for many applications has been difficult for thicknesses beyond 5 unit cells. Using a combination of density functional calculations and x-ray diffraction measurements, we determine the atomic structure of coherent SrTiO 3 films on silicon, finding that the Sr concentration at the interface varies with the film thickness. The structures with the lowest computed energies best match the x-ray diffraction. During growth, Sr diffuses from the interface to the surface of the film; the increasing difficulty of Sr diffusion with film thickness may cause the disorder seen in thicker films. The identification of this unique thickness-dependent interfacial structure opens the possibility of modifying the interface to improve the thickness and quality of metal oxide films on silicon. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Dungan K.E.,High Performance Technologies Inc. | Potter L.C.,Ohio State University
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing | Year: 2011

We present a fast, scalable method to simultaneously register and classify vehicles in circular synthetic aperture radar imagery. The method is robust to occlusions and partial matches. Images are represented as a set of attributed scattering centers that are mapped to local sets, which are invariant to rigid transformations. Similarity between local sets is measured using a method called pyramid match hashing, which applies a pyramid match kernel to compare sets and a Hamming distance to compare hash codes generated from those sets. By preprocessing a database into binary hash codes, we are able to quickly find the nearest neighbor of a query among a large number of records. To demonstrate the algorithm, we simulated X-band scattering from ten civilian vehicles placed throughout a large scene, varying elevation angles in the 35°-59° range. We achieved better than 98% classification performance. Similar performance is demonstrated for a seven class task using airborne radar measurements. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Delworth T.L.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Rosati A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Anderson W.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Adcroft A.J.,Princeton University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

The authors present results for simulated climate and climate change from a newly developed highresolution global climate model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.5 (GFDL CM2.5)]. The GFDL CM2.5 has an atmospheric resolution of approximately 50 km in the horizontal, with 32 vertical levels. The horizontal resolution in the ocean ranges from 28 km in the tropics to 8 km at high latitudes, with 50 vertical levels. This resolution allows the explicit simulation of some mesoscale eddies in the ocean, particularly at lower latitudes. Analyses are presented based on the output of a 280-yr control simulation; also presented are results based on a 140-yr simulation in which atmospheric CO 2 increases at 1% yr -1 until doubling after 70 yr. Results are compared to GFDL CM2.1, which has somewhat similar physics but a coarser resolution. The simulated climate in CM2.5 shows marked improvement over many regions, especially the tropics, including a reduction in the double ITCZ and an improved simulation of ENSO. Regional precipitation features are much improved. The Indian monsoon and Amazonian rainfall are also substantially more realistic in CM2.5. The response of CM2.5 to a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 has many features in common with CM2.1, with some notable differences. For example, rainfall changes over the Mediterranean appear to be tightly linked to topography in CM2.5, in contrast to CM2.1 where the response is more spatially homogeneous. In addition, in CM2.5 the near-surface ocean warms substantially in the high latitudes of the Southern Ocean, in contrast to simulations using CM2.1. Source

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