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Ali U.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Mahmood A.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Syed J.H.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Li J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2015

Abstract Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ΣPBDEs and ΣDPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g-1 in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m-3 in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Torretta V.,University of Insubria | Katsoyiannis A.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013

The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various sludge types from a moderate-big wastewater treatment plant in the Lombardy region, Italy, was studied. Pyrene was continuously the most abundant PAH, whereas anthracene was the PAH with the lowest concentrations. Average ΣPAH concentrations ranged between 2405 ng/g (dry weight) in the secondary sludge and 2645 ng/g (dry weight) in the final sludge. A mass balance estimation between the various sludges showed no evident degradation of PAHs. The final sludge PAH concentrations were constantly at around half of the maximum permissible limit set by the European Union for use of sewage sludge in agriculture (6 mg/kg). The highest PAH concentrations were observed during the summer periods. Finally, two approaches were used to estimate the raw wastewater concentrations based on the sludge PAH concentrations. The values obtained did not differ much from the average concentrations measured at the influent wastewaters. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Ali U.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Syed J.H.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Malik R.N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Katsoyiannis A.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are semi volatile organic compounds of global concern. During the last decades, their distribution, sources, transformation, toxicity and accumulation in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have gained significant attention. Many of these chemicals are characterized by long range atmospheric transport potential, and their occurrence in remote areas is attributed to transport of chemicals from places where OCPs are still in use. The South Asia region is a place where primarily emissions are still taking place and thus it is important to assess the status of OCPs pollution. This document provides the historical overview and country specific environmental legislation of OCPs from the South Asian region in the context of their illegal use and storage for extended periods and still until to date. In addition, the current review discusses the existing knowledge on the levels and distribution of OCPs in different environmental compartments of South Asian region. Data on OCPs also highlights the risk assessment of these organic contaminants in the regional environment and spans the long range atmospheric transport phenomena based on Himalayas and Northern mountainous glaciers. Paradoxically in the scientific literature sources, distribution and transport of these organic pollutants in South Asian region are very limited compared to the rest of the world. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Klenow S.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessement | Heinemeyer G.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessement | Brambilla G.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Dellatte E.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

The dietary exposure to selected PFAAs was estimated in four selected European states (Belgium, the Czech Republic, Italy and Norway) representing Western, Southern, Eastern and Northern Europe. The harmonised sampling programme designed in the European Union project PERFOOD was targeted at identifying seven selected PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in food items that are most important both in terms of consumption and based on known high contamination patterns. The estimated average dietary exposure for adults (18-64 years) and children (3-9 years) is generally below or close to 1 ng kg-1 BW day-1 for all seven PFAAs. Considering the high consumption of food groups that contribute most to the exposure does not result in estimates exceeding 4 ng kg-1 BW day-1. Thus, based on the TDIs proposed by EFSA for PFOS (150 ng kg-1 BW day-1) and PFOA (1500 ng kg-1 BW day-1), no concern can be identified. There are distinct dietary exposure patterns from region to region as a result of different food consumption and contamination patterns. Foods of plant origin (e.g. fruit and vegetables) are most important for the dietary exposure to PFHxA, PFOA and PFHxS, while the consumption of foods of animal origin (particularly fish and seafood) mostly contributes to the dietary exposure to PFDA and PFUnDA. For the dietary exposure to PFNA and PFOS, food of animal and plant origin contributes with equal importance. In conclusion, region-to-region differences as well as the relative importance of food of different origin for each PFAA should be paid more attention in further research. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Cristale J.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Katsoyiannis A.,Lancaster University | Katsoyiannis A.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment | Sweetman A.J.,Lancaster University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

This study presents the occurrence and risk of PBDEs, new brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants along a river affected by urban and industrial pressures (River Aire, UK). Tris(2-choroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris[2-chloro-1-(chloromethyl) ethyl] phosphate (TDCP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were detected in all samples, with TCPP present at the highest concentrations, ranging from 113 to 26 050 ng L-1. BDE-209 was detected in most of the sampled sites, ranging from 17 to 295 ng L-1, while hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromoethyl benzene (PBEB) were seldom detected. A risk quotients based on predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) and flame retardants water concentration proved significant risk for adverse effects for algae, Daphnia and fish in sites close to industrial and urban sewage discharges. This study provides a protocol for the risk estimation of priority and new generation flame retardants based on river concentrations and toxicological values. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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