High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment

Tromsø, Norway

High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment

Tromsø, Norway
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Herzke D.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment | Huber S.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment | Bervoets L.,University of Antwerp | D'Hollander W.,University of Antwerp | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

The human diet is recognised as one possible major exposure route to the overall perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) burden of the human population, resulting directly from contamination of dietary food items, as well as migration of PFAS from food packaging or cookware. Most European countries carry out national monitoring programs (food basket studies) to monitor contamination with pollutants. Usually, for PFASs, non-coordinated approaches are used in Europe, since food basket studies are mainly carried out by national authorities following national requirements and questions, making comparisons between different countries difficult. A harmonised sampling campaign collecting similar food items in a uniform procedure enabling direct comparison between different regions in Europe was designed. We selected four countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, Italy and Norway), representing the four regions of Europe: West, East, South and North. In spring 2010 and 2011, 20 different types of vegetables were sampled in Belgium, Czech Republic, Italy and Norway. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the main group of detected PFASs, with perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA) as the most abundant PFCA (with exception of samples from Czech Republic), followed by perfluorinated hexanoic acid and perfluorinated nonanoic acid. Dietary intake estimates for PFOA show only low human exposure due to vegetable consumption for adults and children, mostly governed by high intake of potatoes. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Torretta V.,University of Insubria | Katsoyiannis A.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013

The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various sludge types from a moderate-big wastewater treatment plant in the Lombardy region, Italy, was studied. Pyrene was continuously the most abundant PAH, whereas anthracene was the PAH with the lowest concentrations. Average ΣPAH concentrations ranged between 2405 ng/g (dry weight) in the secondary sludge and 2645 ng/g (dry weight) in the final sludge. A mass balance estimation between the various sludges showed no evident degradation of PAHs. The final sludge PAH concentrations were constantly at around half of the maximum permissible limit set by the European Union for use of sewage sludge in agriculture (6 mg/kg). The highest PAH concentrations were observed during the summer periods. Finally, two approaches were used to estimate the raw wastewater concentrations based on the sludge PAH concentrations. The values obtained did not differ much from the average concentrations measured at the influent wastewaters. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Katsoyiannis A.,Lancaster University | Katsoyiannis A.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment | Birgul A.,Lancaster University | Ratola N.,Lancaster University | And 5 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2012

Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of σPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900μgCAF-1, with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250μgCAF-1, accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750m3 per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, σPAHs ranged between 13 and 56ngm-3 and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0ngm-3, suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25ngm-3) and the European Union (1.0ngm-3), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres.Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous availability of very high amounts of "sample", and the "retroactivity" render it very useful and complementary to existing passive sampling techniques. This approach yields estimated air concentrations that reflect the pollutant concentrations to which taxi drivers, pedestrians, cyclists and road-related professionals are exposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Klenow S.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessement | Heinemeyer G.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessement | Brambilla G.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Dellatte E.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

The dietary exposure to selected PFAAs was estimated in four selected European states (Belgium, the Czech Republic, Italy and Norway) representing Western, Southern, Eastern and Northern Europe. The harmonised sampling programme designed in the European Union project PERFOOD was targeted at identifying seven selected PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in food items that are most important both in terms of consumption and based on known high contamination patterns. The estimated average dietary exposure for adults (18-64 years) and children (3-9 years) is generally below or close to 1 ng kg-1 BW day-1 for all seven PFAAs. Considering the high consumption of food groups that contribute most to the exposure does not result in estimates exceeding 4 ng kg-1 BW day-1. Thus, based on the TDIs proposed by EFSA for PFOS (150 ng kg-1 BW day-1) and PFOA (1500 ng kg-1 BW day-1), no concern can be identified. There are distinct dietary exposure patterns from region to region as a result of different food consumption and contamination patterns. Foods of plant origin (e.g. fruit and vegetables) are most important for the dietary exposure to PFHxA, PFOA and PFHxS, while the consumption of foods of animal origin (particularly fish and seafood) mostly contributes to the dietary exposure to PFDA and PFUnDA. For the dietary exposure to PFNA and PFOS, food of animal and plant origin contributes with equal importance. In conclusion, region-to-region differences as well as the relative importance of food of different origin for each PFAA should be paid more attention in further research. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Ali U.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Syed J.H.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Malik R.N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Katsoyiannis A.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are semi volatile organic compounds of global concern. During the last decades, their distribution, sources, transformation, toxicity and accumulation in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have gained significant attention. Many of these chemicals are characterized by long range atmospheric transport potential, and their occurrence in remote areas is attributed to transport of chemicals from places where OCPs are still in use. The South Asia region is a place where primarily emissions are still taking place and thus it is important to assess the status of OCPs pollution. This document provides the historical overview and country specific environmental legislation of OCPs from the South Asian region in the context of their illegal use and storage for extended periods and still until to date. In addition, the current review discusses the existing knowledge on the levels and distribution of OCPs in different environmental compartments of South Asian region. Data on OCPs also highlights the risk assessment of these organic contaminants in the regional environment and spans the long range atmospheric transport phenomena based on Himalayas and Northern mountainous glaciers. Paradoxically in the scientific literature sources, distribution and transport of these organic pollutants in South Asian region are very limited compared to the rest of the world. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Ali U.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Mahmood A.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Syed J.H.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Li J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2015

Abstract Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ΣPBDEs and ΣDPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g-1 in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m-3 in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment, Lancaster University and Quaid-i-Azam University
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2015

Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of PBDEs and DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53ngg(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59pgm(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDEs congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area.


PubMed | CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment, Lancaster University and Quaid-i-Azam University
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are semi volatile organic compounds of global concern. During the last decades, their distribution, sources, transformation, toxicity and accumulation in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have gained significant attention. Many of these chemicals are characterized by long range atmospheric transport potential, and their occurrence in remote areas is attributed to transport of chemicals from places where OCPs are still in use. The South Asia region is a place where primarily emissions are still taking place and thus it is important to assess the status of OCPs pollution. This document provides the historical overview and country specific environmental legislation of OCPs from the South Asian region in the context of their illegal use and storage for extended periods and still until to date. In addition, the current review discusses the existing knowledge on the levels and distribution of OCPs in different environmental compartments of South Asian region. Data on OCPs also highlights the risk assessment of these organic contaminants in the regional environment and spans the long range atmospheric transport phenomena based on Himalayas and Northern mountainous glaciers. Paradoxically in the scientific literature sources, distribution and transport of these organic pollutants in South Asian region are very limited compared to the rest of the world.


Cristale J.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Katsoyiannis A.,Lancaster University | Katsoyiannis A.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment | Chen C.,Lancaster University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

Novel brominated (BFRs) and organophosphorus (OPFRs) flame retardants were monitored in river water using the ceramic dosimeter passive sampling device with HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) as sorbent. Laboratory calibrations were performed to determine sampling rates for each compound using the Archie's law exponent. The passive sampling device was used to determine the presence of 6 BFRs in the River Aire (United Kingdom), selected according to their ubiquitous presence in the River Aire. Passive sampling integrated river water concentrations ranged from 0.010 to 5.6 μg L-1 for all OPFRs, while BFRs were not detected with this specific passive sampler configuration. Decreased sampling rates were evidenced after 3 weeks of deployment, probably due to fouling. Good agreement between integrated and snapshot water concentrations was obtained, indicating the efficiency of the passive sampler for the monitoring of OPFRs in river water. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Cristale J.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Katsoyiannis A.,Lancaster University | Katsoyiannis A.,High North Research Center on Climate and the Environment | Sweetman A.J.,Lancaster University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

This study presents the occurrence and risk of PBDEs, new brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants along a river affected by urban and industrial pressures (River Aire, UK). Tris(2-choroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris[2-chloro-1-(chloromethyl) ethyl] phosphate (TDCP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were detected in all samples, with TCPP present at the highest concentrations, ranging from 113 to 26 050 ng L-1. BDE-209 was detected in most of the sampled sites, ranging from 17 to 295 ng L-1, while hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromoethyl benzene (PBEB) were seldom detected. A risk quotients based on predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) and flame retardants water concentration proved significant risk for adverse effects for algae, Daphnia and fish in sites close to industrial and urban sewage discharges. This study provides a protocol for the risk estimation of priority and new generation flame retardants based on river concentrations and toxicological values. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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