High Institute of Food Industry

Tunis, Tunisia

High Institute of Food Industry

Tunis, Tunisia
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Mahfoudhi N.,High Institute of Food Industry | Mahfoudhi N.,University of Salerno | Hamdi S.,High Institute of Food Industry
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to evaluate almond gum as an encapsulation material for β-carotene in comparison with gum arabic and to assess the functionality of the obtained powders applying them in cake as colorant. β-carotene gum powders were prepared by freeze-drying, then the kinetic degradation as well as the surface color changes of the powders, during a storage period of 70 days, under three relative humidities (RHs): 10, 45 and 80% were studied. The degradation rate of β-carotene and the decrease in the red color were described using a first-order kinetic model. The rate of degradation of β-carotene as well as that of the red color increased as increasing RH until a value at which the samples collapsed (80% RH). Results showed that microencapsulation with almond gum offered greater protection to β-carotene compared to gum arabic, and it was observed that the powders were able to color the studied food system (cake) in a homogenous manner. Practical Applications: In recent years, a growing interest was observed for new sources of biopolymers to be used in the food industry. In this work, a novel gum exudate, almond gum from Prunus dulcis, is compared with the well-established gum arabic, an exudate from Acacia senegal trees, in terms of their encapsulation abilities. Almond gum is a gum copiously exuded from the trunk, branches and fruits of P.dulcis trees, after mechanical injury and/or infection by microorganisms. It has been proved in the present study that almond gum could be used successfully as a wall material to encapsulate β-carotene by freeze-drying. Moreover, the results suggest that almond gum could be explored as a novel and potential natural wall material for use in encapsulation of active ingredients to substitute many other wall materials which are not all the time evident. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Boussaid A.,High Institute of Food Industry | Chouaibi M.,High Institute of Food Industry | Chouaibi M.,University of Salerno | Rezig L.,High Institute of Food Industry | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2015

The present study was undertaken to determine the physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of six types of Tunisian honey samples from various floral origins (eucalyptus, orange, thyme, mint, rosemary, and horehound). All the honey samples exhibited non-Newtonian behavior at a shear rate ranging between 0.01 and 500 s-1, with the highest levels of viscosity (μ) being observed for thyme, followed by eucalyptus, rosemary, mint, orange, and horehound honeys, respectively. The effect of temperature on the dynamic viscosity of the samples followed an Arrhenius-like pattern, with activation energy values ranging from 21.23 to 34.91 kJ/mol. The results from oscillatory rheology analysis also revealed that the loss modulus predominated over the storage one in the whole frequency range. As determined by differential scanning calorimetry, the glass transition (Tg) and melting temperatures of the Tunisian honey samples varied between -41.55 and -47.06 °C and between 197.9 and 221.1°C depending on their sugar compositions, respectively. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Mahfoudhi N.,High Institute of Food Industry | Hamdi S.,High Institute of Food Industry
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2015

Almond gum and gum arabic were used as edible coatings for sweet cherries in order to delay their ripening during postharvest storage at 2C and 90-95% relative humidity for 15 days. Coating of sweet cherries with 10% almond gum or gum arabic has been found to enhance their shelf life and postharvest quality. Fruits coated with almond gum or gum arabic showed a significant decrease in respiration rate as well as ethylene production. Moreover, coatings were able to delay changes in weight, firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids concentration and color development compared with uncoated control fruit. The results suggested that by using almond gum as an edible coating, we can delay the ripening process and increase the shelf life of sweet cherries stored at 2C for 15 days without any spoilage and off-flavor. Practical Applications: Edible coatings could be an effective tool for delaying the ripening process of fruits and vegetables during the postharvest storage period. The effectiveness of almond gum from Prunus dulcis as a novel edible coating, in comparison with gum arabic, was studied in sweet cherries in order to maintain parameters related to quality during postharvest storage. The results showed that almond gum was able to slow down the gas exchange by reducing the CO2 concentration of coated sweet cherries, which reduced their ethylene production. As a result, the evolution of parameters related to the quality of sweet cherries was significantly delayed. Moreover, the results suggested that almond gum could be explored as a novel and potential natural edible coating to substitute the synthetic forms of fruit and vegetable packaging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Mahfoudhi N.,High Institute of Food Industry | Sessa M.,University of Salerno | Chouaibi M.,High Institute of Food Industry | Ferrari G.,University of Salerno | And 2 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

The emulsifying properties of almond gum from Prunus dulcis were assessed in comparison with gum arabic from Acacia senegal.Interfacial properties were preliminary evaluated by pendant drop method, while emulsifying ability was quantified in terms of mean droplet size of O/W emulsions prepared at different intensity levels of high pressure homogenization as well as of stability of resulting optimized emulsions.Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum emulsification conditions for minimum mean emulsion droplet size. Homogenization pressure (100-300MPa), number of passes (1-10 passes) and gum concentration (5, 7.5 and 10% w/w) were the factors investigated. Experiments were designed according to a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD), and a second-order polynomial model was developed for the response variable using multiple linear regression analysis, which resulted to be very accurate both for almond gum (R2=0.979) and for gum arabic (R2=0.993).Results showed that almond gum exhibited good emulsifying abilities, yet different from gum arabic. The measured interfacial properties of almond gum showed slower dynamics of adsorption and reorganization at the oil-water interface. Coherently, the optimum emulsification conditions determined by RSM required for almond gum a lower emulsifier concentration (5.7%) than for gum arabic (8.4%), but the use of gum arabic allowed for a smaller mean droplet size at lower intensity of high pressure homogenization treatment. Remarkably, the stability of 10% oil emulsions using almond gum as emulsifier was comparable to those using gum arabic, for gum concentrations in excess of 5%. © 2013.


Mahfoudhi N.,High Institute of Food Industry | Sessa M.,University of Salerno | Ferrari G.,University of Salerno | Hamdi S.,High Institute of Food Industry | Donsi F.,University of Salerno
Food Science and Technology International | Year: 2015

Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50 °C) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations. The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:.


Chouaibi M.,University of Salerno | Rezig L.,High Institute of Food Industry | Mahfoudhi N.,High Institute of Food Industry | Arafa S.,High Institute of Food Industry | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2013

This study was designed to examine both the chemical composition as well as the antioxidant activities of the seed oil extracted from Zizyphus lotusL. The results showed that the neutral lipids were mainly composed of triacylglycerols (92.75% of total lipids). Phosphatidylcholine and digalactosyldiacylglycerol were the main phospholipid and glycolipid subclasses, respectively. Oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids in the lipids of Z.lotus seeds. In addition, β-tocopherol was the predominant tocol at 122.13mg/100g seed oil, which was equivalent to 60.41% of the total tocols followed by δ-tocopherol (13.30%) and δ-tocotrienol (8.95%). The total phenol and flavonoid contents were 18.45mg/100g and 2.31 QE/g oil, respectively, with ferulic acid as the main phenolic acid (1.36mg/100g oil). Overall, the strong antioxidant activities suggest that it could be advantageously used as a functional or nutraceutical food in order to prevent or moderate oxidative stress-related diseases. Practical Applications: Zizyphus lotus seed oil is a good source of the unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid and total tocols, and has the potential to be used as nutrient rich food oil. In addition, it contains a high level of phospholipids with phosphatidylcholine as the major component. Z.lotus seed oil has good natural antioxidant properties. The results suggest that Z.lotus seed oil could be explored as a novel and potential natural antioxidant for use in functional foods and medicine. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Chouaibi M.,University of Salerno | Chouaibi M.,High Institute of Food Industry | Mahfoudhi N.,High Institute of Food Industry | Rezig L.,High Institute of Food Industry | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: Zizyphus lotus seeds are an unutilized source of vegetable oil and protein and nothing has been reported on their physicochemical characteristics which would indicate the potential uses of these seeds. Results: The percentage composition of the Zizyphus lotus seeds is (on a dry-weight basis): ash 1.05%, oil 32.92%, protein 19.11%, total carbohydrate 40.87% and moisture 6.05%. Calcium, potassium and magnesium constitute the major minerals of Zizyphus lotus seeds. The seed proteins are rich in threonine, glutamic acid, leucine, arginine and aspartic acid (26.73%, 17.28%, 13.11%, 9.47% and 7.76%, respectively). The main fatty acids of the oil are oleic (61.93%), linoleic (18.31%) and palmitic (9.14%) acids. Glycerol trioleate (OOO; O: oleic acid) was the most abundant triacylglycerol, representing 26.48% of the total triacyglycerols. β-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (130.47 mg 100 g -1). This oil was rich in Δ7-campestrol and β-sitosterol (147.82 and 82.10 mg 100 g -1 oil), respectively. Conclusion: Zizyphus lotus seeds are rich in fat and protein which are of potential industrial significance. In addition, Zizyphus lotus L. seed oil contained many bioactive compounds. This fact is of great economic interest owing to several applications of Zizyphus lotus L. seeds in the food, cosmetics and medicinal industries. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Mahfoudhi N.,High Institute of Food Industry | Mahfoudhi N.,University of Salerno | Chouaibi M.,High Institute of Food Industry | Hamdi S.,High Institute of Food Industry
Food Science and Technology International | Year: 2014

The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p < 0.05) the changes in color, weight loss, firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids concentration, and decay percentage compared to uncoated control fruits. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of 10% almond gum and gum arabic coatings to maintain the overall quality of tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p > 0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest. © 2012 The Author(s).


PubMed | High Institute of Food Industry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food science and technology international = Ciencia y tecnologia de los alimentos internacional | Year: 2013

The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p<0.05) the changes in color, weight loss, firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids concentration, and decay percentage compared to uncoated control fruits. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of 10% almond gum and gum arabic coatings to maintain the overall quality of tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p>0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest.


PubMed | High Institute of Food Industry and University of Salerno
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food science and technology international = Ciencia y tecnologia de los alimentos internacional | Year: 2016

Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications.

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