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Chen Q.,Harley Davidson Product Development Center Wauwatosa | Li Y.,University of Texas at Dallas | Seem J.E.,High Altitude Trading Inc.
ISA Transactions | Year: 2015

This paper presents a self-optimizing robust control scheme that can maximize the power generation for a variable speed wind turbine with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) operated in Region 2. A dual-loop control structure is proposed to synergize the conversion from aerodynamic power to rotor power and the conversion from rotor power to the electrical power. The outer loop is an Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) based generator torque regulation via the electric power feedback. The ESC can search for the optimal generator torque constant to maximize the rotor power without wind measurement or accurate knowledge of power map. The inner loop is a vector-control based scheme that can both regulate the generator torque requested by the ESC and also maximize the conversion from the rotor power to grid power. An ℋ controller is synthesized for maximizing, with performance specifications defined based upon the spectrum of the rotor power obtained by the ESC. Also, the controller is designed to be robust against the variations of some generator parameters. The proposed control strategy is validated via simulation study based on the synergy of several software packages including the TurbSim and FAST developed by NREL, Simulink and SimPowerSystems. © 2015 ISA. Source


Yang Z.,Exa Corporation | Li Y.,University of Texas at Dallas | Seem J.E.,High Altitude Trading Inc.
Control Engineering Practice | Year: 2015

In wind farm operation, the performance and loads of downstream turbines are heavily influenced by the wake of the upstream turbines. Furthermore, the actual wake is more challenging due to the dynamic phenomenon of wake meandering, i.e. the turbine wake often demonstrates dynamic shift over time. To deal with the time-varying characteristics of wake meandering, a multiple model predictive control (MMPC) scheme is applied to the individual pitch control (IPC) based load reduction. The coherence function in the spectral method is used to generate the stochastic wind profile including wake meandering at upstream turbine, and a simplified wake meandering model is developed to emulate the trajectory of the wake center at downstream turbine. The Larsen wake model and Gaussian distribution of wake deficit are applied for composing wind profiles across the rotor of downstream turbines. A set of MMPC controllers are designed based on different linearized state-space models, and are applied in a smooth switching manner. Simulation results show significant reduction in the variation of both rotor speed and blade-root flapwise bending moment using the MMPC based IPC by including the wake meandering, as compared to a benchmark PI controller designed by NREL. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Chen Q.,Harley Davidson Product Development Center | Li Y.,University of Texas at Dallas | Seem J.E.,High Altitude Trading Inc.
ISA Transactions | Year: 2015

This paper presents a self-optimizing robust control scheme that can maximize the power generation for a variable speed wind turbine with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) operated in Region 2. A dual-loop control structure is proposed to synergize the conversion from aerodynamic power to rotor power and the conversion from rotor power to the electrical power. The outer loop is an Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) based generator torque regulation via the electric power feedback. The ESC can search for the optimal generator torque constant to maximize the rotor power without wind measurement or accurate knowledge of power map. The inner loop is a vector-control based scheme that can both regulate the generator torque requested by the ESC and also maximize the conversion from the rotor power to grid power. An H∞ controller is synthesized for maximizing, with performance specifications defined based upon the spectrum of the rotor power obtained by the ESC. Also, the controller is designed to be robust against the variations of some generator parameters. The proposed control strategy is validated via simulation study based on the synergy of several software packages including the TurbSim and FAST developed by NREL, Simulink and SimPowerSystems. © 2015 ISA. Source


Mu B.,University of Texas at Dallas | Li Y.,University of Texas at Dallas | Hu B.,University of Texas at Dallas | Seem J.E.,High Altitude Trading Inc.
ASME 2014 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, DSCC 2014 | Year: 2014

The chilled water system, typically consisting of chiller and cooling tower, plays a major role in the ventilation and airconditioning systems in commercial buildings. Due to the significant power consumption of such system, improvement of its efficiency would lead to significant benefit in energy saving. As the system characteristics and operational conditions can vary dramatically in practice, model-free self-optimizing control is of high interest in practice. In this study, the chilledwater plant being studied consists of one screw chiller and one counter-flow cooling tower. A multi-variable Newton-based extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme is app lied to maximize the power efficiency in real time with the cooling load being satisfied. The feedback for the ESC controller is the total power of the chiller compressor, the cooling tower fan and the condenser water pump, while the inputs are cooling-tower fan speed and the condenser-loop water flow rate. The two-input Newton-based ESC controller is simulated with a Modelica based dynamic simulation model of the chiller-tower system. Two inner-loop PI controllers are used to regulate the temperatures of evaporator superheat and evaporator leaving water at their respective setpoints. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Remarkable energy saving is observed for several testing conditions. Copyright © 2014 by ASME. Source


Mu B.,University of Texas at Dallas | Li Y.,University of Texas at Dallas | Seem J.E.,High Altitude Trading Inc. | Hu B.,Xian Jiaotong University
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2015

This paper presents a multivariable Newton-based extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme for efficient operation of a chilled-water plant. A modelica-based dynamic simulation model of the chilled-water plant consists of one screw chiller and one counter-flow cooling tower was adopted for evaluation of proposed two-input Newton-based ESC controller. The ESC controller takes the total power of the chiller compressor, the cooling-tower fan, and the condenser water (CW) pump as feedback signal and discovers the optimum outputs of cooling-tower fan speed and the condenser-loop water flow rate to maximize the power efficiency in real time with the cooling load being satisfied. Remarkable energy saving is observed for several testing conditions. Copyright © 2015 by ASME. Source

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