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Liu Y.S.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Wu T.Y.I.,High Altitude Medical Research Institute | Ding S.Q.,China Railway 20 Bureau Group Corporation | Liu W.H.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | And 5 more authors.
2010 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, iCBBE 2010 | Year: 2010

In order to solve the hypoxia problem in Qinghai-Tibet railway tunnel construction, on the Qinghai-Tibet Pleatu, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycle to concentrate oxygen from the low pressure atmosphere at high altitude had been developed. Two PSA oxygen generation stations were constructed which located in Fenghuoshan about 5000m high above sea level. Furthermore, a system of disperse oxygen supply in tunnel construction section was brought forward. After the system was used, the oxygen partial pressure of the tunnel section could be enhanced by 2-3kPa and the difficulty of the lack of oxygen in the tunnel development was solved efficiently. An observation of the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and the physiologic responses in the workers before and after oxygen supply in the tunnel have also been studied. After supplying oxygen, it was showed the incidence of AMS decreased significantly, the arterial oxygen saturation increased, and the labor efficiency raised. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Wu T.-Y.,High Altitude Medical Research Institute | Ding S.-Q.,Qinghai Tibet Railroad Hospital at Fenghuoshan | Liu J.-L.,Qinghai Tibet Railroad Hospital at Kekexili | Jia J.-H.,Qinghai Tibet Railroad Hospital at Fenghuoshan | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2012

Background It is important to determine the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among workers at altitudes between 3500 m and 5000 m on Mt. Tanggula during the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet railroad. This study explored the risk factors predisposing workers to developing AMS and attempted to develop more effective ways of preventing and treating AMS. Methods A total of 11 182 workers were surveyed by completing twice daily a Lake Louise questionnaire, and a score ≥3 indicated AMS. The contributing risk factors were assessed for at least 2 months for the duration of the study in the years from 2001 to 2003. A risk model was developed by multiple Logistic regression. Standard statistical methods were used to analyze data. Results AMS occurred in 56% of workers working at high altitudes on Mt. Tanggula. The incidence of AMS increased with increasing altitude. Rapid ascent to an altitude above 3500 m, sea-level or lowland newcomers, young people under 25 years of age, heavy physical exertion, obese person, and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2) below 80% were independent AMS risk factors. No significant association was found between AMS and sex or taking Rhodiola. Medical education contributed to an early diagnosis of AMS. Conclusions This study used the Lake Louise scoring system suggesting that it is a well-validated standard for field evaluation of AMS and for making an early diagnosis. These studies have described many variables regarding risk factors for the development of AMS. Risk factors which can be modified should be attended to, and the physicians should carry out check-ups and tests to identify subjects who are more at risk. Prevention consists in continuous gradual ascent, medical education, and prompt descent to avoid progression in patients with serious AMS. It is most important to effectively control the risk factors of AMS. Source

Hao L.-M.,Tsinghua University | Lu J.-K.,Zhengzhou University | Zhang Y.-S.,Tianjin Polytechnic University | Wu T.-Y.,High Altitude Medical Research Institute
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2013

In this study, the functional properties of Jxsac, a recently developed high-molecular-weight polysaccharide product, have been characterized. The physicochemical properties (such as its composition, transparency, retrogradation and blue value), solution viscosity, infrared spectroscopy and gel filtration chromatography of Jxsac were characterized in comparison with that of Vitargo polysaccharide, a commercially available product for sports drinks, and that of corn starch. The results showed that the properties of Jxsac were comparable to, but significantly different from, that of Vitargo polysaccharide. The molecular weight of Jxsac is about 288.1kDa compared with 303.5kDa for Vitargo polysaccharide. Thin layer chromatography result of the hydrolysate showed that the basic component of Jxsac was glucose. The results from this work demonstrated that Jxsac could be a desirable alternative as a key ingredient for the formulation of high-energy solid beverage. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Polysaccharides are important structural ingredients of sports drinks. This study developed a new polysaccharide named Jxsac, having excellent functionalities as a key ingredient in the production of high-energy solid beverages. Moreover, Jxsac has a short production time with low cost, so it has a special advantage in the industrial application of sports drinks. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Qi X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Cui C.,Tibetan University | Peng Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Peng Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 22 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Tibetans live on the highest plateau in the world, their current population size is approximately 5 million, and most of them live at an altitude exceeding 3,500 m. Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau is a remarkable area for cultural and biological studies of human population history. However, the chronological profile of the Tibetan Plateau's colonization remains an unsolved question of human prehistory. To reconstruct the prehistoric colonization and demographic history of modern humans on the Tibetan Plateau, we systematically sampled 6,109 Tibetan individuals from 41 geographic populations across the entire region of the Tibetan Plateau and analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of both paternal (n= 2,354) and maternal (n= 6,109) lineages as well as genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers (n = 50) in Tibetan populations. We found that there have been two distinct, major prehistoric migrations of modern humans into the Tibetan Plateau. The first migration was marked by ancient Tibetan genetic signatures dated to approximately 30,000 years ago, indicating that the initial peopling of the Tibetan Plateau by modern humans occurred during the Upper Paleolithic rather than Neolithic. We also found evidences for relatively young (only 7-10 thousand years old) shared Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes between Tibetans and Han Chinese, suggesting a second wave of migration during the early Neolithic. Collectively, the genetic data indicate that Tibetans have been adapted to a high altitude environment since initial colonization of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Upper Paleolithic, before the last glacial maximum, followed by a rapid population expansion that coincided with the establishment of farming and yak pastoralism on the Plateau in the early Neolithic. © The Author 2013. Source

Hao L.-M.,Tsinghua University | Hao L.-M.,Quartermaster Research Institute | Xing X.-H.,Tsinghua University | Li Z.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 6 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

This paper is concerned with the optimization of effect factors for mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production by Schizophyllum commune by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal methods. The one-factor-at-a-time method was adopted to investigate the effects of six different compounds (sodium carboxymethylcellulose, l-glutamic acid, VB1, naphthalene acetic acid, oleic acid, and Tween 80) on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production. Among these factors, oleic acid, VB1 and Tween 80 were identified to be the most important factors. Subsequently, the concentration of oleic acid, VB1 and Tween 80 were optimized using the orthogonal matrix method. The effects of the factors on the mycelial growth of S. commune were in the order of oleic acid>VB1>Tween 80, and those on exopolysaccharide production were in the same order. The optimal concentration for mycelia and exopolysaccharide were determined as oleic acid 0.1% (v/v), VB1 0.5 mg/L, and Tween 80 6 mg/L. The subsequent verification experiments confirmed the validity of the models. Under this optimized conditions in shake flask culture, the mycelial yield and exo-biopolymer production were 25.93 and 2.79 g/L, respectively, which were considerably higher than those obtained in the preliminary studies. The result was further confirmed in a 7-L fermentor experiments. © 2009 Humana Press. Source

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