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Terada M.,Dokkyo Medical University | Horii Y.,Kitayama Labes Co. | Sato F.,Hidaka Training and Research Center | Taniguchi K.,Kitasato University | And 6 more authors.
Reproductive Medicine and Biology

Purpose: Ejaculation in the male dog consists of three fractions. Observation of behavior and measurement of heart rate (HR), and plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (Ad) concentrations were researched sequentially, and a fundamental examination of the features of sympathetic nerve activity during copulatory behavior induced by the hand method in the male dog was undertaken. Methods: We investigated the breeding capability of male dogs. HR, plasma NA level and plasma Ad levels were measured during ejaculation induced by the hand method. Results: HR was 125.8 ± 6.0 beats/min at rest, and peaked during mounting at 195.2 ± 8.2 beats/min. Moreover, HR at 3 min after the first fraction decreased to values similar to those at rest. Plasma NA and Ad concentrations during copulatory behavior induced by the hand method did not differ significantly from those at rest. However, although there was no significant difference, plasma NA concentration during ejaculation of the third fraction peaked at about 1.8 times the baseline value. Conclusions: In the male dog, excitation of sympathetic nerves of long duration during erection of the penis and ejaculation is questionable. However, inhibition of sympathetic nerves and activation of parasympathetic nerves is thought to occur during erection of the penis and ejaculation. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Kitahara G.,University of Miyazaki | Nambo Y.,Hidaka Training and Research Center | El-Sheikh Ali H.,University of Miyazaki | El-Sheikh Ali H.,Mansoura University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development

This study was carried out to evaluate the blood profile and tissue expression of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a biomarker for granulosa-theca cell tumors (GTCTs) in cattle. Five cases with unilateral ovarian GTCTs (GTCT group) were investigated in comparison to other groups of Japanese Black cows, which had either cystic ovarian disease (COD group, n=5), a functional corpus luteum on Days 9 to 11 of the estrous cycle (Day 0=estrus; CL group, n=13) or received superovulation treatment (SOT group, n=13). We used transrectal ultrasonography and measured plasma AMH, estradiol-17β (E 2), progesterone (P 4) and testosterone (T) levels. Moreover, GTCT tissues were collected and examined by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for AMH. In the GTCT group, ultrasound images of GTCTs were variable and not definitive. However, the AMH level in the GTCT group (n=3, 58.1 ± 66.3 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in the COD, CL and SOT groups (0.1 ± 0.1 ng/ml for GTCT vs. COD, P<0.05; 0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.2 ng/ml, respectively for GTCT vs. CL and SOT, P<0.01). The other hormonal levels in the GTCT group had no significant differences compared with the COD or SOT group. Neoplastic granulosa cells labeled with AMH antibody clearly demonstrated a variety of tissue patterns in all cases by IHC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the blood profile and IHC of AMH in bovine GTCTs. Our findings indicate that AMH may be a novel biomarker to diagnose GTCTs in cattle. © 2012 by the Society for Reproduction and Development. Source

Tachibana Y.,Tokyo Medical University | Tachibana Y.,Kagoshima University | Sakurai T.,Tokyo Medical University | Sakurai T.,Tokyo University of Science | And 6 more authors.

Extensive studies have been conducted to characterize the unique phenomena of equine pregnancy. Most studies have focused on embryo transmigration when the embryo is covered with a mucin-like glycoprotein capsule and on the characterization of the chorionic girdle and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) secretion. However, the events preceding and following capsule disappearance have not been well studied. In this study, the mRNA expression in conceptus membranes at days 19, 21, and 25 (day 05day of ovulation) was analyzed by RNA-seq (SOLiD3), and transcript levels on these three days and day 13 were confirmed by real-time PCR. Of the 26,416 equine genes registered, 20,436 transcripts were aligned to sequences in the Ensembl database, from which 4,625 transcripts were registered in both Ensembl and the KEGG pathway. Each of the 4,625 transcripts was examined through KEGG pathway analysis, and 12 transcripts of integrins (ITGs) and collagens (COLs) were confirmed through real-time PCR. Our data indicated that extracellular matrix (ECM)-related mRNAs were highly expressed in day 19, 21, and 25 conceptus membranes. In combination with previous results, which confirmed a lack of laminin and fibronectin transcript expression in the endometrium, these observations suggest that in contrast to attachment through focal adhesion, conceptus chorionic membrane ECMs function as a scaffold-like structure to possibly maintain the shape of the conceptus and a separation between chorionic membranes and the uterine luminal epithelium. © 2014 Tachibana et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Kozai K.,Okayama University | Tokuyama S.,Okayama University | Szostek A.Z.,Okayama University | Szostek A.Z.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 13 more authors.

In mares, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) secreted from the endometrium is a major luteolysin. Some domestic animals have an autoamplification system in which PGF2α can stimulate its own production. Here, we investigated whether this is also the case in mares. In an in vivo study, mares at the mid-luteal phase (days 6-8 of estrous cycle) were injected i.m. with cloprostenol (250 ìg) and blood samples were collected at fixed intervals until 72 h after treatment. Progesterone (P4) concentrations started decreasing 45 min after the injection and continued to decrease up to 24 h (P < 0.05). In turn, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2α (PGFM) metabolite started to increase 4h after an injection and continued to increase up to 72 h (P < 0.05). PGF receptor (PTGFR) mRNA expression in the endometrium was significantly higher in the late luteal phase than in the early and regressed luteal phases (P < 0.05). In vitro, PGF2α significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) PGF2α production by endometrial tissues and endometrial epithelial and stromal cells and significantly increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), an enzyme involved in PGF2α synthesis in endometrial cell. These findings strongly suggest the existence of an endometrial PGF2α auto-amplification system in mares. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Source

Hori Y.,Kyoto University | Hori Y.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science | Tozaki T.,Laboratory of Racing Chemistry | Nambo Y.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Animal Genetics

Tractability, or how easily animals can be trained and controlled, is an important behavioural trait for the management and training of domestic animals, but its genetic basis remains unclear. Polymorphisms in the serotonin receptor 1A gene (HTR1A) have been associated with individual variability in anxiety-related traits in several species. In this study, we examined the association between HTR1A polymorphisms and tractability in Thoroughbred horses. We assessed the tractability of 167 one-year-old horses reared at a training centre for racehorses using a questionnaire consisting of 17 items. A principal components analysis of answers contracted the data to five principal component (PC) scores. We genotyped two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the horse HTR1A coding region. We found that one of the two SNPs, c.709G>A, which causes an amino acid change at the intracellular region of the receptor, was significantly associated with scores of four of five PCs in fillies (all Ps < 0.05) and one PC in colts (P < 0.01). Horses carrying an A allele at c.709G>A showed lower tractability. This result provides the first evidence that a polymorphism in a serotonin-related gene may affect tractability in horses with the effect partially different depending on sex. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics. Source

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