Hidaka Training and Research Center

Hokkaido, Japan

Hidaka Training and Research Center

Hokkaido, Japan

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PubMed | Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Hidaka Training and Research Center, Donan NOSAI, Japan Racing Association and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of equine science | Year: 2016

One- to two-year-old Thoroughbred colts and fillies being reared in Miyazaki (warm climate) and Hidaka (cold climate), Japan, were administered extended photoperiod (EP) treatment between December 20 and the following April 10, and its effect on growth, endocrine changes, gonadal activation, and hair coat condition was investigated. In colts reared in Miyazaki, no effect of EP treatment was noted on the growth indices, including body weight (BW), height at withers (HW), girth, and cannon circumference (CC), whereas the BWs and CCs of fillies were significantly higher in the EP treatment group than the control. In Hidaka, the BWs and HWs of colts and HWs of fillies were significantly higher in the EP treatment group. Gonadal activation characterized by an increase in circulating hormone concentrations was earlier in the EP treatment group for fillies reared in Miyazaki [luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P4), and estradiol-17 (E2)] and in colts (LH, testosterone, and E2) and fillies (LH, FSH, P4, and E2) reared in Hidaka. Regardless of sex and climate, prolactin was significantly higher in the EP treatment group, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) was not. Initial ovulation occurred before April in more of the EP treatment group than the control regardless of the climate. Molting of the hair coat, examined in March, was advanced in the EP treatment group regardless of sex and climate. These results suggest that EP treatment may promote growth and gonadal activation in fillies reared in Miyazaki and in colts and fillies reared in Hidaka and that the effect may be mediated by prolactin.


PubMed | Hidaka Training and Research Center, Tottori University, Miyazaki Yearling Training Farm, Yamatokohgen Animal Medical Clinic and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2015

Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV) is a recently discovered homolog of the hepatitis C virus in horses. The frequency and distribution of NPHV infections among horses in Japan is unknown. In this study, serum samples from 453 horses across Japan were screened for NPHV RNA using real-time RT-PCR and anti-nonstructural 3 protein (NS3) antibodies using the Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. In order to monitor the course of NPHV infection in horses, we examined 31 stored samples (9 adult horses and 22 young horses) obtained one year ago and compared the results to the recent data. Stored sera from 7 mare-foal pairs were also examined. The NS3 region sequences of 14 NPHV strains from NPHV RNA positive serum samples were determined and analyzed phylogenically. Of the 453 serum samples tested, 33.55% were positive for anti-NS3 antibody and 13.68% were positive for NPHV RNA. We found a higher rate of NPHV RNA detection in serum obtained from young horses (1-2 years of age) than that of adults, in two geographically distinct areas. We observed higher variation in the course of infection over one year in young horses than in adult horses. The foals were infected with NPHV after the weaning period. Phylogenic analysis revealed that while NPHV NS3 genes isolated in Japan clustered with sequences previously classified as NPHV, but the genetic diversity of the Japanese NPHV strains we detected was not correlated with their geographic origin. In conclusion, Japanese horses exhibit a high prevalence of NPHV. Young age appears to be a risk factor for such viral infection in Japan, although the infectious route was not determined.


PubMed | Yamato Kohgen Animal Medical Clinic, Hidaka Training and Research Center, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine and University of Kentucky
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of equine science | Year: 2015

Anti-Mllerian hormone (AMH), a glycoprotein secreted from the fetal testis, is responsible for regression of the Mllerian duct in the male fetus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum AMH as a biomarker for diagnosis of cryptorchidism in horses. Serum AMH concentrations were measured in intact stallions, hemi-castrated unilateral cryptorchid stallions, and geldings. In addition, expression of AMH was characterized in cryptorchid testes by immunohistochemistry. Serum AMH was detected in intact stallions (n=11, 13.3 1.8 ng/ml) and in hemi-castrated cryptorchid stallions (n=8, 17.6 3.0 ng/ml), but not in geldings (n=6, all data were below the limit of detection). Immunolabeling for AMH was detected in Sertoli cells of undescended testes from cryptorchid horses as well as those of normal testes. Our findings indicate that the cryptorchid testis after hemi-castration secretes AMH and that serum AMH concentrations may be a useful biomarker for diagnosis of equine cryptorchidism.


PubMed | Gifu University, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Hidaka Training and Research Center and Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of equine science | Year: 2016

The effects of an extended photoperiod (EP) treatment (14.5 hr light, 9.5 hr dark) on Thoroughbred colts and fillies from December 25 at 7-9 months old to the following May at 12-14 months old on coat condition and gonadal functions were investigated. Coat condition was evaluated in April. The colts and fillies in the EP treatment group changed from winter to summer coats (molting of winter coats), whereas those in the control group did not. To determine the day of first ovulation, the plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured once a month in fillies. The day of first ovulation was advanced in the EP treatment fillies compared with the control fillies. The present study clearly demonstrated that the EP treatment advanced the molting of winter coats and advanced ovulation in fillies, even in weanlings.


Kotoyori Y.,Equine Research Institute | Yokoo N.,The Mutual | Ito K.,Hidaka Horse Breeders Association | Murase H.,Hidaka training and research center | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

The objective was to assess the optimal procedure for real-time, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) imaging for assessing the equine fetus during the first half of gestation and the possibility of using 3D US imaging of the equine fetus in clinical applications. Seventeen pregnant mares were examined by 3D US between Days 35 and 180 of gestation. Abdominal and endo-vaginal real-time 3D transducers used in human medicine were used for transrectal and transvaginal examinations, respectively. Images were recorded by both 3D stationary and real-time movies. In a comparison of four methods, transrectal examination with a bulb-shaped abdominal 3D transducer enabled the equine fetus to be clearly visualized, and did not require sedation of the mare. Therefore, this approach was the most suitable procedure for examining equine fetuses during the first half of gestation. Each scan required only a few seconds and an entire examination took <10 min in total. The 3D volume image was easy to restore after the examination and could be rotated to any angle the examiner desired. Fetal surface structures, including the head, body, limbs, and genital tubercle, were observed as 3D images which enabled fetal development to be characterized. For early (Days 60-70), but not later (Days 90-150) periods, 3D ultrasonography was not able to evaluate fetal structure in detail as well as conventional 2D ultrasonography. In conclusion, 3D ultrasonography of the equine fetus was a valuable adjunct to 2D ultrasonography and a convenient modality for more detailed assessment of fetal structures. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Hidaka Horse Breeders Association, Hidaka Training and Research Center and Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of equine science | Year: 2016

Five Thoroughbred foals (age, 8-33 weeks; median age, 31 weeks; weight, 122-270 kg; median weight, 249 kg) exhibiting ataxia with suspected cervical myelopathy (n=4) and limb malformation (n=1) were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) myelography. The areas of the subarachnoid space and cervical cord were measured on transverse CT images. The area of the cervical cord was divided by the area of subarachnoid space, and stenosis ratios were quantitatively evaluated and compared on the basis of histopathological examination. The sites with a ratio above 52.8% could have been primary lesion sites in the histopathological examination, although one site with a ratio of 54.1% was not a primary lesion site. Therefore, in this study, a ratio between 52.8-54.1% was suggested to be borderline for physical compression that damages the cervical cord. All the cervical vertebrae could not be scanned in three of the five cases. Therefore, CT myelography is not a suitable method for locating the site of compression, but it should be used for quantitative evaluation of cervical stenosis diagnosed by conventional myelography. In conclusion, the stenosis ratios determined using CT myelography could be applicable for detecting primary lesion sites in the cervical cord.


PubMed | Hidaka Training and Research Center, Ritto Training Center, Equine Research Institute and Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of equine science | Year: 2016

The objective of the present study was to verify the seasonal luteal activity of racehorses in training in Japan from March to August. We allocated 102 horses into a luteal activity group and non-luteal activity group. The luteal activity group included horses with serum progesterone levels that were consistently >1 ng/ml and changed by 1 ng/ml. In contrast, the progesterone levels of the non-luteal activity group were consistently <1 ng/ml. In late spring (from May 1 to June 30) and summer (from July 1 to August 31), the percentage of horses in the luteal activity group was significantly higher than in early spring (from March 1 to April 30, P<0.01). These findings demonstrate clear seasonal variations in ovarian activity. The present study also suggest that training for a race may not affect ovarian activity in female racehorses.


PubMed | Epizootic Research Center, Hidaka Training and Research Center and Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of equine science | Year: 2016

Fungal placentitis is an infectious disease inducing abortion in pregnant mares. In the present report, we describe a field case of abortion caused by fungal placentitis with consecutive examinations. The progesterone level and combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) were abnormal before the onset of clinical signs. Additionally, the estradiol level started to change before the appearance of clinical signs. Abnormal serum amyloid A values and an abnormal fetal heart rate were observed after the onset of clinical signs. The present report demonstrates that the progesterone level and CTUP may be adequate as early diagnostic markers of fungal placentitis and bacterial infection. Endocrinological evaluation based on cutoff values or serial measurements were also useful for early diagnosis.


PubMed | Hidaka Training and Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Equine veterinary journal | Year: 2015

Flexural deformities are common conditions of growing horses and are suggested to have a relationship with the contraction of musculotendinous units. However, limited studies have documented the changes in each tendon and ligament in the metacarpal region with age.To investigate the changes in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of each tendon and ligament in the metacarpal region with age by ultrasonographic examination.Longitudinal study of foals from Day 1 to age 24 months.The CSA of the superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon and suspensory ligament was measured by ultrasonographic examination at monthly intervals from Day 1 to age 24 months in 7 Thoroughbred foals.Changes in superficial digital flexor CSA in all regions were larger than those of other structures from 10 months to 15 months. The suspensory ligament CSA was significantly larger than those of other structures on Day 1 in both the region of suspensory origin (RSO) and region of suspensory body (RSBO). This condition continued until 2 months in the RSO and until 5 months in the RSBO. The changes in deep digital flexor CSA were larger than those of other structures from 2 to 5 months in both the RSO and RSBO.The rate of change in each structure varies with age. Thus, the functional adaptation with age that takes place may differ among structures because the primary function of each structure differs.


PubMed | Hidaka Training and Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of veterinary medical science | Year: 2015

The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose marbofloxacin in protecting horses against fever associated with transportation using 48 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses were premedicated with interferon- (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, every 24 hr) for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, IV, once; MRFX group), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; ERFX group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 ml, IV, once; control group) 1 hr before being transportation. Each group contained 16 horses (8 males, 8 females). Horses were transported 1,210 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 26 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses both before and after transportation. Post-transportation neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group compared with the control horses. The serum amyloid A levels were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group and ERFX group compared with the control horses. Regarding the post-transportation rectal temperatures, fever was detected in 0 horses and 1 horse in the MRFX and ERFX groups, respectively, whereas fevers exceeding 39.1C were detected in 2 horses in the control group. Additionally, the number of essential post-transportation treatments provided by veterinarians was reduced 3-fold in the MRFX and ERFX groups compared with the saline group. MRFX provided ERFX-like protection against fever associated with long-distance transportation, yielding significantly better protection than saline. Administration of MRFX just before transportation deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse fever associated with transportation.

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