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Oeder S.,Hice Helmholtz Virtual Institute Of Complex Molec Systems In Environmental Health Aerosols And Health | Oeder S.,United Virtual | Oeder S.,TU Munich | Oeder S.,Christine Kuhne Center for Allergy Research and Education | And 90 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives: To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods: Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results: The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot"). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions: Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a reduction of carbonaceous soot in the ship emissions by implementation of filtration devices. © 2015 Oeder et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Sapcariu S.C.,University of Luxembourg | Sapcariu S.C.,Hice Helmholtz Virtual Institute Of Complex Molec Systems In Environmental Health Aerosols And Health | Kanashova T.,Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine | Kanashova T.,Hice Helmholtz Virtual Institute Of Complex Molec Systems In Environmental Health Aerosols And Health | And 6 more authors.
MethodsX | Year: 2014

Proper sample preparation is an integral part of all omics approaches, and can drastically impact the results of a wide number of analyses. As metabolomics and proteomics research approaches often yield complementary information, it is desirable to have a sample preparation procedure which can yield information for both types of analyses from the same cell population. This protocol explains a method for the separation and isolation of metabolites and proteins from the same biological sample, in order for downstream use in metabolomics and proteomics analyses simultaneously. In this way, two different levels of biological regulation can be studied in a single sample, minimizing the variance that would result from multiple experiments. This protocol can be used with both adherent and suspension cell cultures, and the extraction of metabolites from cellular medium is also detailed, so that cellular uptake and secretion of metabolites can be quantified. Advantages of this technique includes:Inexpensive and quick to perform; this method does not require any kits.Can be used on any cells in culture, including cell lines and primary cells extracted from living organisms.A wide variety of different analysis techniques can be used, adding additional value to metabolomics data analyzed from a sample; this is of high value in experimental systems biology. © 2014 The Authors.

Schafer K.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Schafer K.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Elsasser M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Elsasser M.,University of Rostock | And 16 more authors.
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2016

The assessment of airborne fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics in the case of Augsburg, Germany, during winter (31 January-12 March 2010) is studied on the basis of aerosol mass spectrometry (3 non-refractory components and organic matter, 3 positive matrix factorizations (PMF) factors), particle size distributions (PSD, 5 size modes, 5 PMF factors), further air pollutant mass concentrations (7 gases and VOC, black carbon, PM10, PM2.5) and meteorological measurements, including mixing layer height (MLH), with one-hourly temporal resolution. Data were subjectively assigned to 10 temporal phases which are characterised by different meteorological influences and air pollutant concentrations. In each phase hierarchical clustering analysis with the Ward method was applied to the correlations of air pollutants, PM components, PM source contributions and PSD modes and correlations of these data with all meteorological parameters. This analysis resulted in different degrees of sensitivities of these air pollutant data to single meteorological parameters. It is generally found that wind speed (negatively), MLH (negatively), relative humidity (positively) and wind direction influence primary pollutant and accumulation mode particle (size range 100-500 nm) concentrations. Temperature (negatively), absolute humidity (negatively) and also relative humidity (positively) are relevant for secondary compounds of PM and particle (PM2.5, PM10) mass concentrations. NO, nucleation and Aitken mode particle and the fresh traffic aerosol concentrations are only weakly dependent on meteorological parameters and thus are driven by emissions. These daily variation data analyses provide new, detailed meteorological influences on air pollutant data with the focus on fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics and can explain major parts of certain PM component and gaseous pollutant exposure. © 2016 The authors.

Reda A.A.,University of Rostock | Reda A.A.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Reda A.A.,Hice Helmholtz Virtual Institute Of Complex Molec Systems In Environmental Health Aerosols And Health | Czech H.,University of Rostock | And 23 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2015

Gas-phase emission samples of carbonyl compounds (CCs) were collected from two modern wood combustion appliances. Multiple repetitions were conducted on masonry heater operated with three logwood species (birch, beech, and spruce) and for a pellet boiler operated by softwood pellet with normal combustion and unoptimized combustion (in which the secondary combustion air flow rate was decreased). The sampling of CCs was performed from diluted exhaust using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges. The CCs-hydrazone derivatives were analyzed by a gas chromatography-selective ion monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS) method. Twelve (12) CCs were quantified in the masonry heater emissions and 8 in the pellet boiler emissions. The total carbonyl emission factors (EFs) for logwood were determined to be as follows: birch, 113 ± 18 mg kg-1; beech, 178 ± 31 mg kg-1; spruce, 171 ± 19 mg kg-1; and, for softwood pellet with normal combustion, 6 ± 0.9 mg kg-1 and for softwood pellet with unoptimized combustion, 6.5 ± 1 mg kg-1. In masonry heater operation, birch exhibits the lowest emission factors, compared to other wood types. No significant differences were noticed between the emission of normal and unoptimized combustion for the pellet boiler operation. The emission profile examination showed that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the predominated carbonyls in the emission, regardless of the wood type. Time-resolved results obtained via single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) depict that, in masonry heater emissions, most carbonyls are produced as a new batch of wood is introduced. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

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