Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. It provides hardware, software and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health and education sectors.The company was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by William "Bill" Redington Hewlett, David "Dave" Packard, and Mike Limon, starting with a line of electronic test equipment. HP is the world's leading PC manufacturer and has been since 2007, fending off a challenge by Chinese manufacturer Lenovo, according to Gartner. It specializes in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines include personal computing devices, enterprise and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP markets its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises directly as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology vendors. HP also has services and consulting business around its products and partner products. In 2013 it was the world's second-largest PC vendor by unit sales.Hewlett-Packard company events have included the spin-off of its electronic and bio-analytical measurement instruments part of its business as Agilent Technologies in 1999, its merger with Compaq in 2002, the sponsor of Mission: Space in 2003, and the acquisition of EDS in 2008, which led to combined revenues of $118.4 billion in 2008 and a Fortune 500 ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com, with the deal closing on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout of Palm, Inc. for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer , which Dell declined to match.On October 6, 2014, Hewlett-Packard announced plans to split the PC and printers business from its enterprise products and services business. The split is expected to close by October 2015 and will result in two publicly traded companies: Hewlett-Packard Enterprise and HP, Inc. Wikipedia.
Yang J.J.,Hewlett - Packard |
Strukov D.B.,University of California at Santa Barbara |
Stewart D.R.,National Research Council Canada
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2013
Memristive devices are electrical resistance switches that can retain a state of internal resistance based on the history of applied voltage and current. These devices can store and process information, and offer several key performance characteristics that exceed conventional integrated circuit technology. An important class of memristive devices are two-terminal resistance switches based on ionic motion, which are built from a simple conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stack. These devices were originally conceived in the late 1960s and recent progress has led to fast, low-energy, high-endurance devices that can be scaled down to less than 10 nm and stacked in three dimensions. However, the underlying device mechanisms remain unclear, which is a significant barrier to their widespread application. Here, we review recent progress in the development and understanding of memristive devices. We also examine the performance requirements for computing with memristive devices and detail how the outstanding challenges could be met. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Graefe G.,Hewlett - Packard
ACM Transactions on Database Systems | Year: 2012
B-Trees have been ubiquitous in database management systems for several decades, and they serve in many other storage systems as well. Their basic structure and their basic operations are well understood including search, insertion, and deletion. However, implementation of transactional guarantees such as all-or-nothing failure atomicity and durability in spite of media and system failures seems to be difficult. High-performance techniques such as pseudo-deleted records, allocation-only logging, and transaction processing during crash recovery are widely used in commercial b-Tree implementations but not widely understood. This survey collects many of these techniques as a reference for students, researchers, system architects, and software developers. Central in this discussion are physical data independence, separation of logical database contents and physical representation, and the concepts of user transactions and system transactions. Many of the techniques discussed are applicable beyond b-Trees. © 2012 ACM.
Graefe G.,Hewlett - Packard
Foundations and Trends in Databases | Year: 2010
Invented about 40 years ago and called ubiquitous less than 10 years later, B-tree indexes have been used in a wide variety of computing systems from handheld devices to mainframes and server farms. Over the years, many techniques have been added to the basic design in order to improve efficiency or to add functionality. Examples include separation of updates to structure or contents, utility operations such as non-logged yet transactional index creation, and robust query processing such as graceful degradation during index-to-index navigation. This survey reviews the basics of B-trees and of B-tree indexes in databases, transactional techniques and query processing techniques related to B-trees, B-tree utilities essential for database operations, and many optimizations and improvements. It is intended both as a survey and as a reference, enabling researchers to compare index innovations with advanced B-tree techniques and enabling professionals to select features, functions, and tradeoffs most appropriate for their data management challenges. © 2011 G. Graefe.
Ranganathan P.,Hewlett - Packard
Communications of the ACM | Year: 2010
Power and Energy are key design considerations across a spectrum of computing solutions, from supercomputers and data centers to handheld phones and other mobile computers. A large body of work focuses on managing power and improving energy efficiency. While prior work is easily summarized in two words-"Avoid waste!"-the challenge is figuring out where and why waste happens and determining how to avoid it. In this article, I discuss how, at a general level, many inefficiencies, or waste, stem from the inherent way system architects address the complex trade-offs in the system-design process. I discuss common design practices that lead to power. © 2010 ACM.
Vontobel P.O.,Hewlett - Packard
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2013
We present a combinatorial characterization of the Bethe entropy function of a factor graph, such a characterization being in contrast to the original, analytical, definition of this function. We achieve this combinatorial characterization by counting valid configurations in finite graph covers of the factor graph. Analogously, we give a combinatorial characterization of the Bethe partition function, whose original definition was also of an analytical nature. As we point out, our approach has similarities to the replica method, but also stark differences. The above findings are a natural backdrop for introducing a decoder for graph-based codes that we will call symbolwise graph-cover decoding, a decoder that extends our earlier work on blockwise graph-cover decoding. Both graph-cover decoders are theoretical tools that help toward a better understanding of message-passing iterative decoding, namely blockwise graph-cover decoding links max-product (min-sum) algorithm decoding with linear programming decoding, and symbolwise graph-cover decoding links sum-product algorithm decoding with Bethe free energy function minimization at temperature one. In contrast to the Gibbs entropy function, which is a concave function, the Bethe entropy function is in general not concave everywhere. In particular, we show that every code picked from an ensemble of regular low-density parity-check codes with minimum Hamming distance growing (with high probability) linearly with the block length has a Bethe entropy function that is convex in certain regions of its domain. © 1963-2012 IEEE.