Haarlem, Netherlands
Haarlem, Netherlands

Time filter

Source Type

Van der Laan H.,Technical University of Delft | Van der Laan H.,Oasen Drinking Water Company | van Halem D.,Technical University of Delft | Smeets P.W.M.H.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

In 2012 more than 4 million people used a ceramic pot filter (CPF) as household water treatment system for their daily drinking water needs. In the normal production protocol most low cost filters are impregnated with a silver solution to enhance the microbial removal efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the role of silver during the filtration and subsequent storage. Twenty-two CPFs with three different silver applications (non, only outside and both sides) were compared in a long-term loading experiment with Escherichia coli (K12 and WR1) and MS2 bacteriophages in natural challenge water under highly controlled laboratory circumstances. No significant difference in Log Removal Values were found between the filters with different silver applications. The results show that the storage time in the receptacle is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation by silver, and not the contact time during the filtration phase. The hypothesis that the absence of silver would enhance the virus removal, due to biofilm formation on the ceramic filter element, could not be confirmed. The removal effectiveness for viruses is still of major concern for the CPF. This study suggests that the ceramic pot filter characteristics, such as burnt material content, do not determine E. coli removal efficacies, but rather the contact time with silver during storage is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bazri M.M.,University of British Columbia | Martijn B.,PWN Technologies andijk | Kroesbergen J.,Het Waterlaboratorium | Mohseni M.,University of British Columbia
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

The formation potential of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (C-DBPs, N-DBPs) after ion exchange treatment (IEX) of three different water types in multiple consecutive loading cycles was investigated. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detector (LC-OCD) was employed to gauge the impact of IEX on different natural organic matter (NOM) fractions and data obtained were used to correlate these changes to DBPs Formation Potential (FP) under chlorination. Humic (-like) substances fractions of NOM were mainly targeted by ion exchange resins (40-67% removal), whereas hydrophilic, non-ionic fractions such as neutrals and building blocks were poorly removed during the treatment (12-33% removal). Application of ion exchange resins removed 13-20% of total carbonaceous DBPs FP and 3-50% of total nitrogenous DBPs FP. Effect of the inorganic nitrogen (i.e., Nitrate) presence on N-DBPs FP was insignificant while the presence of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was found to be a key parameter affecting the formation of N-DBPs. DON especially the portion affiliated with humic substances fraction, was reduced effectively (~77%) as a result of IEX treatment. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of British Columbia, Het Waterlaboratorium and PWN Technologies andijk
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015

The formation potential of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (C-DBPs, N-DBPs) after ion exchange treatment (IEX) of three different water types in multiple consecutive loading cycles was investigated. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detector (LC-OCD) was employed to gauge the impact of IEX on different natural organic matter (NOM) fractions and data obtained were used to correlate these changes to DBPs Formation Potential (FP) under chlorination. Humic (-like) substances fractions of NOM were mainly targeted by ion exchange resins (40-67% removal), whereas hydrophilic, non-ionic fractions such as neutrals and building blocks were poorly removed during the treatment (12-33% removal). Application of ion exchange resins removed 13-20% of total carbonaceous DBPs FP and 3-50% of total nitrogenous DBPs FP. Effect of the inorganic nitrogen (i.e., Nitrate) presence on N-DBPs FP was insignificant while the presence of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was found to be a key parameter affecting the formation of N-DBPs. DON especially the portion affiliated with humic substances fraction, was reduced effectively (77%) as a result of IEX treatment.


van Lieverloo J.H.M.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | Hoogenboezem W.,Het Waterlaboratorium | Veenendaal G.,WLN Waterlaboratorium Noord | van der Kooij D.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute
Water Research | Year: 2012

A survey of invertebrates in drinking water from treatment works, internal taps and hydrants on mains was carried out by almost all water companies in the Netherlands from September 1993 to August 1995. Aquatic sow bugs (Asellidae, 1-12 mm) and oligochaeta worms (Oligochaeta, 1-100 mm), both known to have caused rare though embarrassing consumer complaints, were found to form 98% of the mean biomass in water flushed from mains. Their numbers in the mains water ranged up to 1500 (mean 37) Asellidae m-3 and up to 9900 (mean 135) Oligochaeta m-3. Smaller crustaceans (0.5-2 mm) dominated the numbers in water from mains. e.g. water fleas (Cladocera and Copepoda up to 14,000 m-3). Common invertebrates in treated water and in tap water were Rotifera (<1 mm) and nematode worms (Nematoda, <2 mm). No Asellidae, large Oligochaeta (>5 mm) or other large invertebrates were found in 1560 samples of 200 l treated water or tap water.Large variations in invertebrate abundance were found within and between distribution systems. Of the variability of mean biomass in mains per system, 55%, 60% and 63% could statistically be explained by differences in the Biofilm Formation Rate, non-particulate organic matter and the permanganate index of the treated water of the treatment works respectively. A similar correlation was found between mean invertebrate biomass and mean sediment volumes in the distribution systems (R2 = 52%). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Schijven J.F.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Van den Berg H.H.J.L.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Colin M.,Waternet | Dullemont Y.,Waternet | And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2013

Slow sand filtration (SSF) in drinking water production removes pathogenic microorganisms, but detection limits and variable operational conditions complicate assessment of removal efficiency. Therefore, a model was developed to predict removal of human pathogenic viruses and bacteria as a function of the operational conditions. Pilot plant experiments were conducted, in which bacteriophage MS2 and Escherichia coli WR1 were seeded as model microorganisms for pathogenic viruses and bacteria onto the filters under various temperatures, flow rates, grain sizes and ages of the Schmutzdecke. Removal of MS2 was 0.082-3.3 log10 and that of E. coli WR1 0.94-4.5 log10 by attachment to the sand grains and additionally by processes in the Schmutzdecke. The contribution of the Schmutzdecke to the removal of MS2 and E. coli WR1 increased with its ageing, with sticking efficiency and temperature, decreased with grain size, and was modelled as a logistic growth function with scale factor f0 and rate coefficient f1. Sticking efficiencies were found to be microorganism and filter specific, but the values of f0 and f1 were independent of microorganism and filter. Cross-validation showed that the model can be used to predict log removal of MS2 and ECWR1 within ±0.6 log. Within the range of operational conditions, the model shows that removal of microorganisms is most sensitive to changes in temperature and age of the Schmutzdecke. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Het Waterlaboratorium, Water Supply Company Noord Holland PWN and PWN Technologies
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2015

Assessment of drinking-water biostability is generally based on measuring bacterial growth in short-term batch tests. However, microbial growth in the distribution system is affected by multiple interactions between water, biofilms and sediments. Therefore a diversity of test methods was applied to characterize the biostability of drinking water distributed without disinfectant residual at a surface-water supply. This drinking water complied with the standards for the heterotrophic plate count and coliforms, but aeromonads periodically exceeded the regulatory limit (1000 CFU 100 mL(-1)). Compounds promoting growth of the biopolymer-utilizing Flavobacterium johnsoniae strain A3 accounted for c. 21% of the easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration (17 2 g C L(-1)) determined by growth of pure cultures in the water after granular activated-carbon filtration (GACF). Growth of the indigenous bacteria measured as adenosine tri-phosphate in water samples incubated at 25 C confirmed the low AOC in the GACF but revealed the presence of compounds promoting growth after more than one week of incubation. Furthermore, the concentration of particulate organic carbon in the GACF (83 42 g C L(-1), including 65% carbohydrates) exceeded the AOC concentration. The increased biomass accumulation rate in the continuous biofouling monitor (CBM) at the distribution system reservoir demonstrated the presence of easily biodegradable by-products related to ClO2 dosage to the GACF and in the CBM at 42 km from the treatment plant an iron-associated biomass accumulation was observed. The various methods applied thus distinguished between easily assimilable compounds, biopolymers, slowly biodegradable compounds and biomass-accumulation potential, providing an improved assessment of the biostability of the water. Regrowth of aeromonads may be related to biomass-turnover processes in the distribution system, but establishment of quantitative relationships is needed for confirmation.


Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Dunea Duin en Water | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Knol A.H.,Dunea Duin en Water | Van Altena L.P.,Dunea Duin en Water | And 3 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2012

Serial ozone/peroxide/low pressure UV was tested for an advanced oxidation process (AOP) application on pre-treated surface water in a pilot plant. The pilot plant consisted of an ozone loop reactor followed by a low pressure UV (LP-UV) reactor. Fourteen model compounds and 6 or 10 ppm hydrogen peroxide were dosed to the water. Ozone doses varied from 0.5 to 2.0 g/m 3 and UV doses varied, depending on the UV transmission (73-83%) of the water, between 700 and 950 mJ/cm 2. The treatment process was evaluated on bromate formation, compound conversion and energy demand. The bromate formation during the O 3/H 2O 2 process was kept lower than 0.5 μg/L by using a peroxide dose of 6 ppm and an ozone dose of 1.5 mg/L. With a 1.5 mg/L ozone dose and 6 ppm of peroxide, 8 out of 14 compounds were converted by more than 90% with an energy consumption of 0.027 kW h/m 3. During the subsequent UV/H 2O 2, the E EO for atrazine was 0.52 kW h/m 3; together with the O 3/H 2O 2, the E EO for serial AOP was 0.55 kW h/m 3, which was 0.73 kW h/m 3 for UV/H 2O 2 only. During O 3/H 2O 2 treatment, the DOC decreased with 0.2 mg/L and the UV-T 254 increased with almost 5%, illustrating the synergistic effect of serial AOP. When 3 UV reactors in series were used, with each reactor dosing 1/3 of the total dose, the total conversion increased 5-15%. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Maeng S.K.,Sejong University | Sharma S.K.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Abel C.D.T.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Magic-Knezev A.,Het Waterlaboratorium | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology | Year: 2012

Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Maeng S.K.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Sharma S.K.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Abel C.D.T.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Magic-Knezev A.,Het Waterlaboratorium | Amy G.L.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Water Research | Year: 2011

Natural water treatment systems such as bank filtration have been recognized as providing effective barriers in the multi-barrier approach for attenuation of organic micropollutants for safe drinking water supply. In this study, the role of biodegradation in the removal of selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during soil passage was investigated. Batch studies were conducted to investigate the removal of 13 selected PhACs from different water sources with respect to different sources of biodegradable organic matter. Neutral PhACs (phenacetine, paracetamol, and caffeine) and acidic PhACs (ibuprofen, fenoprofen, bezafibrate, and naproxen) were removed with efficiencies greater than 88% from different organic matter water matrices during batch studies (hydraulic retention time (HRT): 60 days). Column experiments were then performed to differentiate between biodegradation and sorption with regard to the removal of selected PhACs. In column studies, removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs (e.g., analgesics) decreased under conditions of limited biodegradable carbon. The removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs were found to be less than 21% under abiotic conditions. These observations were attributed to sorption under abiotic conditions established by a biocide (20 mM sodium azide), which suppresses microbial activity/biodegradation. However, under biotic conditions, the removal efficiencies of these acidic PhACs were found to be greater than 59%. This is mainly attributed to biodegradation. Moreover, the average removal efficiencies of hydrophilic (polar) neutral PhACs (paracetamol, pentoxifylline, and caffeine) with low octanol/water partition coefficients (log K ow less than 1) were low (11%) under abiotic conditions. However, under biotic conditions, removal efficiencies of the neutral PhACs were greater than 98%. In contrast, carbamazepine persisted and was not easily removed under either biotic or abiotic conditions. This study indicates that biodegradation represents an important mechanism for the removal of PhACs during soil passage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Technical University of Delft, KWR Watercycle Research Institute and Het Waterlaboratorium
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2016

The emergence of clinical enterococcal isolates that are resistant to both ampicillin and vancomycin is a cause of great concern, as therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of infections caused by such organisms are becoming limited. Aquatic environments could play a role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistant enterococci. This study investigated the presence of ampicillin and vancomycin resistant enterococci in the treated effluent of six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in surface water used as a source for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Membrane filtration in combination with selective media with ampicillin or vancomycin was applied to determine the presence of ampicillin resistant Enterococcus (ARE) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) species. Ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) >16g/mL; n=1033) was observed in all studied WWTP effluents. In surface water used for drinking water production (intake locations), no ARE or VRE were observed. At both types of location, intrinsic vancomycin resistant Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were isolated with the vancomycin medium. The ampicillin resistant E. faecium (AREfm) isolates (n=113) did not contain the vanA or vanB gene, but MIC testing for vancomycin showed intermediate vancomycin resistance (2-8gmL(-1)) to occur in these AREfm strains. This study documents the discharge of ampicillin resistant E. faecium strains with intermediate vancomycin resistance by the WWTPs into the surface water, but no presence of these strains downstream at intake locations for drinking water production.

Loading Het Waterlaboratorium collaborators
Loading Het Waterlaboratorium collaborators