Gießen, Germany
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Falk S.,Hessian State Laboratory | Brunn H.,Hessian State Laboratory | Schroter-Kermani C.,Federal Environment Agency | Failing K.,Justus Liebig University | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

For more than 50 years perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have found worldwide industrial and household uses. Some PFASs are presumed to be persistent and bioaccumulative. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are thought to be a suitable bioindicator for the accumulation of organic xenobiotics. Due to the ubiquitous nature of PFASs in the environment a retrospective study on temporal trends was carried out. A total of 110 deer liver pools collected from 1989 to 2010 in Germany were analyzed for their levels of PFASs. The highest concentrations were measured for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (median 6.3 μg/kg). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were detected with median concentrations of 0.5 μg/kg, 1.2 μg/kg and 0.3 μg/kg, respectively, while concentrations of the other PFASs were below the limit of quantification. PFOS concentrations decreased significantly (rs = -0.741; p = <0.0001) from 9.2 μg/kg in 2000 to 1.8 μg/kg in 2010. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Stahl T.,Hessian State Laboratory | Mattern D.,Hessian State Laboratory | Brunn H.,Hessian State Laboratory
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2011

Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). © 2011 Stahl et al.

Falk S.,Hessian State Laboratory | Failing K.,Justus Liebig University | Georgii S.,Hessian State Laboratory | Brunn H.,Hessian State Laboratory | Stahl T.,Hessian State Laboratory
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

Tissue specific uptake and elimination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were studied in rainbow trout (. Oncorhynchus mykiss). Adult trout were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) via food over a time period of 28. d. In the following 28-d depuration period the fish were fed PFAA-free food. At defined sampling times four animals were removed from the experimental tank, euthanized and dissected. Muscle, liver, kidneys, gills, blood, skin and carcass were examined individually. At the end of the accumulation phase between 0.63% (PFOA) and 15.5% (PFOS) of the absolute, applied quantity of PFAAs was recovered in the whole fish. The main target organ was the liver with recovery rates between 0.11% (PFBS) and 4.01% (PFOS) of the total amount of ingested PFAAs. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids were taken up more readily and had longer estimated elimination half-lives than perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids of the same chain length. The longest estimated elimination half-lives were found to be for PFOS between 8.4. d in muscle tissue and 20.4. d in the liver and for PFNA between 8.2. d in the blood and 11.6. d in the liver. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Stahl T.,Hessian State Laboratory | Taschan H.,Hessian State Laboratory | Brunn H.,Hessian State Laboratory
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2011

For many years aluminium was not considered harmful to human health because of its relatively low bioavailability. In 1965, however, animal experiments suggested a possible connection between aluminium and Alzheimer's disease. Oral intake of foodstuffs would appear to be the most important source of aluminium. Consequently, the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives reduced the provisional tolerable weekly intake value for aluminium from 7 mg kg -1 body weight/week to 1 mg kg -1 body weight/week. Analysis of aluminium content of a number of foods and food products was therefore undertaken in order to evaluate the nutritional intake of aluminium. A total of 1,431 samples were analysed within the scope of this study. The data obtained allow a preliminary but current depiction of the aluminium content of selected non-animal foods, food products and beverages. © 2011 Stahl et al.

Stahl T.,Hessian State Laboratory | Falk S.,Hessian State Laboratory | Failing K.,Justus Liebig University | Berger J.,Hessian State Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Approximately 15,000 tons of wild boar meats (Sus scrofa) are consumed per year in Germany. Boar meat therefore plays a definite role in regard to human diet. Because they are omnivores and because of their high body fat quotient, wild boar may accumulate large concentrations of persistent organic compounds, such as halogenated hydrocarbons, and could thus possibly serve as bioindicators for persistent xenobiotics. In addition, consumption of wild boar meat and liver could lead to increased contaminant levels in humans. Between 2007 and 2009, we tested a total of 529 livers and 506 muscle tissue samples from wild boar for the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOA concentrations ≤45 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤1,780 lg/kg were detected in the liver samples. PFOA concentrations ≤7.4 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤28.6 μg/kg were detected in muscle tissue. Our results show that PFOS may be detected in considerably greater concentrations than PFOA in organs and tissues, which is in agreement with results from other published studies. The comparisons between both organs for the same substance, as well as the comparisons between the substances within an organ, showed clear and statistically significant differences at P<0.0001. Assuming a tolerable daily intake value of PFOA (1.5 μg/kg bw/d) and PFOS (0.15 μg/kg bw/d) as recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, the results of model calculations based on the maximum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS found in wild boar indicate that there should be no PFC-related health danger resulting from moderate consumption of wild boar meat or liver. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Gellrich V.,Fresenius University of Applied Sciences | Gellrich V.,Hessian State Laboratory | Stahl T.,Hessian State Laboratory | Knepper T.P.,Fresenius University of Applied Sciences
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can be detected worldwide in both, soil and water. In order to study the leaching behavior of this heterogeneous group of compounds in soil, flow-through column experiments have been conducted. Ten perfluoro carboxylates and four perfluoro sulfonates ranging from C4 to C14 in chain length, and contaminated sewage sludge, have been used to spike a standard soil. The aqueous column effluent was analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with direct injection. The observed percolation velocity seems to be strongly correlated with the length of the perfluorinated chain. Other factors that additionally contribute to the leaching behavior are the functional group of the PFC, the organic carbon content of the soil and the presence of other adsorbates. A mass balance calculation showed that perfluorobutanoic acid can adsorb strongly to the soil, when no PFC with longer carbon chain are present. Only about 60% of the added perfluorobutanoic acid could be detected in the percolate water. The missing amount started to elute again when longer chain PFC or stearate were added to the soil. Thus it would appear that larger and more lipophilic molecules can displace shorter PFC from their binding sites in the soil.The results of a monitoring study using 32 surface water samples and 150 groundwater samples confirm that the PFC with the highest concentrations in groundwater are the short chain PFC with less than 7 (fluorinated) carbon atoms. The dominating PFC in surface waters are perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Stahl T.,Hessian State Laboratory | Riebe R.A.,Hessian State Laboratory | Falk S.,Hessian State Laboratory | Failing K.,Justus Liebig University | Brunn H.,Hessian State Laboratory
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

To study the behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil and the carry-over from soil to plants, technical mixtures of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at a concentration of 25 mg/kg soil were applied to 1.5 m3 monolithic soil columns of a lysimeter. Growth samples and percolated water were analyzed for PFASs throughout a period of 5 years. In addition to PFOA/PFOS plant compartments and leachate were found to be contaminated with short-chain PFASs. Calculation showed significant decreasing trends (p < 0.05) for all substances tested in the growth samples. Short-chain PFASs and PFOA pass through the soil much more quickly than PFOS. Of the 360 g of PFOA and 367.5 g of PFOS applied to the soil, 96.88% PFOA and 99.98% PFOS were still present in the soil plot of the lysimeter after a period of 5 years. Plants accumulated 0.001% PFOA and 0.004% PFOS. Loss from the soil plot through leachate amounted to 3.12% for PFOA and 0.013% for PFOS. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Gellrich V.,Fresenius University of Applied Sciences | Brunn H.,Hessian State Laboratory | Stahl T.,Hessian State Laboratory
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2013

The aims of the present study were to determine PFAS (perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances) concentrations in various sources of water intended for human consumption, use these data to calculate the possible uptake via water as well as to estimate the water related health risk to consumers. A total of 177 water samples (119 mineral waters, 26 tap water samples, 18 spring water samples and 14 raw (untreated) water samples) were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of 10 or 19 PFASs, respectively. PFAS concentrations above the limit of detection of 1ng/L were found in 52% of all samples. Short-chain PFASs with less than 8 carbon atoms were responsible for 58% of the total PFAS contamination. The highest concentration (sum of PFASs) of 42.7ng/L was detected in tap water. The calculated maximum uptake of both components for which a tolerable daily intake (TDI) level exists were 0.17ng/kg bodyweight/day for PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid) and 0.21ng/kg bodyweight/day for PFOA (perfluorooctane carboxylic acid). In regard to the model calculations made here (TDI for adults and for infants), the uptake of PFOS and PFOA via consumption of water can be considered negligible. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A to view the supplemental file. © Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Goeritz I.,Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology | Falk S.,Hessian State Laboratory | Stahl T.,Hessian State Laboratory | Schafers C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology | Schlechtriem C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2013

The present study investigated the biomagnification potential as well as the substance and tissue-specific distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Rainbow trout with an average body weight of 314±21g were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in the diet for 28 d. The accumulation phase was followed by a 28-d depuration phase, in which the test animals were fed with nonspiked trout feed. On days 0, 7, 14, 28, 31, 35, 42, and 56 of the present study, fish were sampled from the test basin for PFAS analysis. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) for all test compounds were determined based on a kinetic approach. Distribution factors were calculated for each test compound to illustrate the disposition of PFASs in rainbow trout after 28 d of exposure. Dietary exposure of market-size rainbow trout to PFASs did not result in biomagnification; BMF values were calculated as 0.42 for PFOS, >0.23 for PFNA, >0.18 for PFHxS, >0.04 for PFOA, and >0.02 for PFBS, which are below the biomagnification threshold of 1. Liver, blood, kidney, and skin were identified as the main target tissues for PFASs in market-size rainbow trout. Evidence was shown that despite relative low PFAS contamination, the edible parts of the fish (the fillet and skin) can significantly contribute to the whole-body burden. © 2013 SETAC.

Krippner J.,Justus Liebig University | Brunn H.,Hessian State Laboratory | Falk S.,Hessian State Laboratory | Georgii S.,Hessian State Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Maize is the most important grain crop grown for human nutrition, animal fodder and biogas production worldwide. Nonetheless, no systematic studies have been undertaken on these plants to examine the uptake mechanisms for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) dependent upon chain length and pH value. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the influence of chain length (C4 to C10) and pH value (pH 5, pH 6, pH 7) on the uptake and distribution of seven perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) by maize in nutrient solution experiments under controlled conditions in a climate chamber. A pH-dependent uptake was observed for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) with an uptake rate of 2.51μgg-1 at pH 5 compared to 1.52μgg-1 root dry weight (DW) per day (d) at pH 7. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) had the highest uptake rate within the group of PFCAs with an average of 2.46μgg-1 root DWd-1 and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had the highest uptake rate (3.63μgg-1 root DWd-1) within the group of PFSAs. The shoot:root ratio for shorter-chain PFCAs (≤C7) and PFBS (C4) was >2.0, which indicates that shorter-chain PFASs are transferred predominantly and at higher concentrations to the shoot. In contrast, long-chain PFCAs such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) as well as the PFASs perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) accumulated at higher concentrations in the roots of maize plants with a shoot:root ratio of <1.0. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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