Hesse State Laboratory

Gießen, Germany

Hesse State Laboratory

Gießen, Germany

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Liebau A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Liebau A.,Center for Systems Neuroscience | Eisenberg T.,Hesse State Laboratory | Esser K.-H.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Esser K.-H.,Center for Systems Neuroscience
Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology | Year: 2015

The red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) is endemic to the rainforests of Central America. During the night, it hunts for insects in the treetops whereas at daytime, the frogs rest under leaves. In the present study we determined the relative visual sensitivity spectrum of this nocturnal frog species by ERG recordings in both the dark- and light-adapted state. In both the scotopic- and photopic-sensitivity curve, we found only minor individual variations among the tested individuals. The sensitivity maximum of the scotopic curve was determined at 500 nm, which matches the absorption properties of the RH1-visual pigment expressed in the red rods of frogs. The sensitivity maximum of the photopic curve was found at 545 nm which is close to the absorption maximum of the LWS pigment type expressed in most cones of the frog retina. The threshold curves determined by ERG recordings here reveal no unusual features in the sensitivity spectrum of the red-eyed tree frog that could be interpreted as adaptations for its strictly nocturnal life style. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Flamm A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Flamm A.,Hesse State Laboratory | Fabian M.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Runge M.,Food and Veterinary Institute | And 4 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2016

Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens. The present field study investigated whether these measures are sufficient for the inactivation of CyHV-3 infectivity in carp ponds. After draining and liming, the ponds were stocked with carp fry from a CyHV-3-negative stock, and 2 ponds were examined for the presence of CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences during the growth period of the carp and in the harvested stock. Wild fish (from the ponds, and feeder and drainage canals) and water samples (from the ponds) were also examined for CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences; and naïve carp were cohabited with wild fish, or exposed to the pondwater samples, to test for the presence of infectious virus. All examined samples remained negative for CyHV-3 throughout the study. This indicates that draining and liming with quicklime can be a suitable disinfection measure for ponds after a CyHV-3 outbreak in carp aquaculture. © The authors 2016. Open Access under Creative Commons by Attribution Licence. Use, distribution and reproduction are un -restricted. Authors and original publication must be credited.


Schulz S.,Justus Liebig University | Wagner S.,Justus Liebig University | Gerbig S.,Justus Liebig University | Wachter H.,Bavarian State Laboratory for Health and Food Safety | And 3 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2015

Phthalates are used as plasticizes in many everyday items, but some of them are known as hormone disruptors, being especially harmful during childhood. The European Union therefore restricted their application in children's toys and certain food packaging to 0.1%w. Due to the ever increasing number of plastic-containing consumer goods, rapid screening methods are needed to ensure and improve consumer safety in the future. In this study we evaluated the performance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) for rapid quantitative screening of phthalates in toys. DESI allowed for direct surface sampling of the toys under atmospheric conditions with minimal sample preparation, while the high performance mass spectrometer used provided a high sensitivity and reliable identification via accurate mass measurements, high mass resolving power and MS/MS capabilities. External calibration curves for six banned phthalates (DBP, BBP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP and DIDP) were obtained from matrix-matched reference materials. Coefficients of determination were greater than 0.985, LOQs ranged from 0.02%w (DIDP) to 2.26%w (DINP) and the relative standard deviation of the calibration curve slope was less than 7.8% for intraday and 11.4% for interday comparison. The phthalate contents of eleven authentic samples were determined in a proof-of-concept approach using DESI MS and results were compared to those from confirmatory methods. The phthalate content was correctly assigned with relative deviations ranging from -20% to +10% for the majority of samples. Given further optimization and automation, DESI MS is likely to become a useful tool for rapid and accurate phthalate screening in the future. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Heinzler M.,Hesse State Laboratory | Gerlach D.,Perishable Center Building | Brunn H.,Hesse State Laboratory
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2011

Background: The global distribution of food products has created a requirement for inspection and testing of imported goods at national and outer European borders. Problems that are generally not encountered with local produce arise when dealing with imports from third world countries. These may include excessive levels of heavy metals, insufficient hygiene, unapproved veterinary pharmaceuticals in animal-derived foodstuffs or excessive levels of pesticides in plant products. The systematic control of imported food and feed is a challenging endeavour. Rigorous testing of imported non-animal food products by the Hesse State Laboratories was introduced in 2007 at Frankfurt/Main airport in order to protect German consumers from these potential health dangers. This ability to monitor imports with the entire personnel and analytical capacity of the Hesse State Laboratory is a new approach in governmental health inspection. Results: From 2007 to 2009, a total of 1,552 food product samples of plant origin were tested for the presence of pesticide residues. Of these, 18% were found to violate maximum residue levels. Thus, the incidence of products from third world countries that do not meet statutory guidelines (EC) No. 396/2005 is approximately twice that of the average for foodstuffs from third world countries tested in other laboratories in Germany. In 10% of the non-compliant samples, the acute reference dose was exceeded by more than 100% and in a few by more than 1,000%. Conclusions: As a result of the 3-year experience with the"bottleneck control" system at Frankfurt/Main Airport, the Hesse Ministry of Energy, Environment, Agriculture and Consumer Protection has voiced its opinion in the authorisation directive that mandatory prior notification is essential for all non-animal food products imported into the European Union. Only a unified Europe-wide approach can eventually lead to success. © 2011 Meyer; licensee Springer.


Beutlich J.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment | Hammerl J.A.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment | Appel B.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment | Nockler K.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2015

Foods of animal origin brought illegally from third party countries into the European Community pose a risk for the introduction of diseases. This can lead to animal disease outbreaks with significant economic and social costs and subsequent severe trade restrictions. Further, disease outbreaks in humans due to illegally imported foods of animal origin have been described, yet, there are very few studies examining the potential human health impact. Passenger baggage is the most likely route by which illegal products enter a country. Therefore, the volume and geographic origin of foods of animal origin introduced illegally into Germany via the Frankfurt International Airport and Berlin-Schönefeld Airport by passenger luggage were characterized. Further, the occurrence of foodborne zoonotic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Brucella spp. and the microbial quality of the foods were analysed by total bacterial count. Between 2012 and 2013, a total of 663 food items were seized from 296 passengers arriving in Germany from 35 different departure countries. The majority of confiscates (51%) originated from Turkey and Russia. A selection of 474 samples was subjected to microbiological analyses. Twenty-three food products tested positive for at least one of the pathogens analysed. The majority of the contaminated foods were meat (33%) or meat products (42%), and milk products (21%). Considering that only a small fraction of arriving passengers is subjected to airport custom controls and only a small number of confiscated foods could be analysed during this study, further investigations are needed to understand the public health risks posed by illegally introduced food items. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Heinzler M.,Hesse State Laboratory | Gerlach D.,Perishable Center | Brunn H.,Hesse State Laboratory
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2011

Background: The global distribution of food products has created a requirement for inspection and testing of imported goods at national and outer European borders. Problems that are generally not encountered with local produce arise when dealing with imports from third world countries. These may include excessive levels of heavy metals, insufficient hygiene, unapproved veterinary pharmaceuticals in animal-derived foodstuffs or excessive levels of pesticides in plant products. The systematic control of imported food and feed is a challenging endeavour. Rigorous testing of imported non-animal food products by the Hesse State Laboratories was introduced in 2007 at Frankfurt/Main airport in order to protect German consumers from these potential health dangers. This ability to monitor imports with the entire personnel and analytical capacity of the Hesse State Laboratory is a new approach in governmental health inspection. Results: From 2007 to 2009, a total of 1,552 food product samples of plant origin were tested for the presence of pesticide residues. Of these, 18% were found to violate maximum residue levels. Thus, the incidence of products from third world countries that do not meet statutory guidelines (EC) No. 396/2005 is approximately twice that of the average for foodstuffs from third world countries tested in other laboratories in Germany. In 10% of the non-compliant samples, the acute reference dose was exceeded by more than 100% and in a few by more than 1,000%. Conclusions: As a result of the 3-year experience with the "bottleneck control" system at Frankfurt/Main Airport, the Hesse Ministry of Energy, Environment, Agriculture and Consumer Protection has voiced its opinion in the authorisation directive that mandatory prior notification is essential for all non-animal food products imported into the European Union. Only a unified Europe-wide approach can eventually lead to success. © 2011 Heinzler et al.


PubMed | German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Hesse State Laboratory and AirCargo Center Berlin
Type: | Journal: International journal of food microbiology | Year: 2015

Foods of animal origin brought illegally from third party countries into the European Community pose a risk for the introduction of diseases. This can lead to animal disease outbreaks with significant economic and social costs and subsequent severe trade restrictions. Further, disease outbreaks in humans due to illegally imported foods of animal origin have been described, yet, there are very few studies examining the potential human health impact. Passenger baggage is the most likely route by which illegal products enter a country. Therefore, the volume and geographic origin of foods of animal origin introduced illegally into Germany via the Frankfurt International Airport and Berlin-Schnefeld Airport by passenger luggage were characterized. Further, the occurrence of foodborne zoonotic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Brucella spp. and the microbial quality of the foods were analysed by total bacterial count. Between 2012 and 2013, a total of 663 food items were seized from 296 passengers arriving in Germany from 35 different departure countries. The majority of confiscates (51%) originated from Turkey and Russia. A selection of 474 samples was subjected to microbiological analyses. Twenty-three food products tested positive for at least one of the pathogens analysed. The majority of the contaminated foods were meat (33%) or meat products (42%), and milk products (21%). Considering that only a small fraction of arriving passengers is subjected to airport custom controls and only a small number of confiscated foods could be analysed during this study, further investigations are needed to understand the public health risks posed by illegally introduced food items.

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