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Dillenburg, Germany

Fitzenberger J.,Hesse State Health Office
Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2010

Campylobacter infection is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. This study examines the association between campylobacteriosis incidence and degree of urbanicity in Hesse, Germany, by age and Campylobacter species. During a one-year period (July 2005-June 2006), Hessian local health authorities provided information on municipality of residence for 3,315 campylobacteriosis cases. We calculated age- and Campylobacter species-specific incidences for six levels of urbanicity, as defined by population density and accessibility of centres. For children under five years old, living in inner rural areas (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9 to 4.4) and for children aged 5-14 years living in inner rural (IRR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.1) or intermediate areas (inner intermediate area IRR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.7; outer intermediate area IRR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.3) was associated with a statistically significantly higher campylobacteriosis risk (reference category: inner urban area). Calculations by Campylobacter species showed a higher risk of gastroenteritis due to C. coli for inhabitants (all ages) of non-urban areas. This study suggests that differences in risk factors by age, Campylobacter species and degree of urbanicity do exist. For children contact with animals or the environment may be responsible for a substantial proportion of sporadic Campylobacter infections. Source

Fullerton K.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Kirk M.D.,Australian National University | Mahon B.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Angulo F.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2012

Epidemiologists have used case-control studies to investigate enteric disease outbreaks for many decades. Increasingly, case-control studies are also used to investigate risk factors for sporadic (not outbreak-associated) disease. While the same basic approach is used, there are important differences between outbreak and sporadic disease settings that need to be considered in the design and implementation of the case-control study for sporadic disease. Through the International Collaboration on Enteric Disease "Burden of Illness" Studies (the International Collaboration), we reviewed 79 case-control studies of sporadic enteric infections caused by nine pathogens that were conducted in 22 countries and published from 1990 through to 2009. We highlight important methodological and study design issues (including case definition, control selection, and exposure assessment) and discuss how approaches to the study of sporadic enteric disease have changed over the last 20 years (e.g., making use of more sensitive case definitions, databases of controls, and computer-assisted interviewing). As our understanding of sporadic enteric infections grows, methods and topics for case-control studies are expected to continue to evolve; for example, advances in understanding of the role of immunity can be used to improve control selection, the apparent protective effects of certain foods can be further explored, and case-control studies can be used to provide population-based measures of the burden of disease. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012. Source

Hauri A.M.,Hesse State Health Office | Hofstetter I.,Public Health Authority Darmstadt Dieburg | Seibold E.,National Reference Laboratory for Tularemia | Kaysser P.,National Reference Laboratory for Tularemia | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

In November 2005, an outbreak of tularemia occurred among 39 participants in a hare hunt in Hesse, Germany. Previously reported tularemia outbreaks in Germany dated back to the 1950s. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among participants and investigated the environment to identify risk factors for infection. Ten participants had serologic evidence of acute Francisella tularensis infection; 1 other participant died before laboratory confirmation was obtained. Presence within 5 meters of the place where disemboweled hares were rinsed with a water hose was the risk factor most strongly associated with infection (risk ratio 22.1; 95% confidence interval 13.2-154.3). Swabs taken at the game chamber and water samples were PCR negative for F. tularensis. Eleven of 14 hare parts showed low-level concentrations of F. tularensis, compatible with cross-contamination. More than half of case-patients may have acquired infection through inhalation of aerosolized droplets containing F. tularensis generated during rinsing of infected hares. Source

Mazick A.,Statens Serum Institute | Gergonne B.,The National Board of Health and Welfare | Nielsen J.,Statens Serum Institute | Wuillaume F.,Scientific Institute of Public Health | And 13 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2012

In February and March 2012, excess deaths among the elderly have been observed in 12 European countries that carry out weekly monitoring of all-cause mortality. These preliminary data indicate that the impact of influenza in Europe differs from the recent pandemic and post-pandemic seasons. The current excess mortality among the elderly may be related to the return of influenza A(H3N2) virus, potentially with added effects of a cold snap. ©2007-2011. All rights reserved. Source

Nielsen J.,Statens Serum Institute | Mazick A.,Statens Serum Institute | Andrews N.,Public Health England | Detsis M.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 20 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

Several European countries have timely all-cause mortality monitoring. However, small changes in mortality may not give rise to signals at the national level. Pooling data across countries may overcome this, particularly if changes in mortality occur simultaneously. Additionally, pooling may increase the power of monitoring populations with small numbers of expected deaths, e.g. younger age groups or fertile women. Finally, pooled analyses may reveal patterns of diseases across Europe. We describe a pooled analysis of all-cause mortality across 16 European countries. Two approaches were explored. In the 'summarized' approach, data across countries were summarized and analysed as one overall country. In the 'stratified' approach, heterogeneities between countries were taken into account. Pooling using the 'stratified' approach was the most appropriate as it reflects variations in mortality. Excess mortality was observed in all winter seasons albeit slightly higher in 2008/09 than 2009/10 and 2010/11. In the 2008/09 season, excess mortality was mainly in elderly adults. In 2009/10, when pandemic influenza A(H1N1) dominated, excess mortality was mainly in children. The 2010/11 season reflected a similar pattern, although increased mortality in children came later. These patterns were less clear in analyses based on data from individual countries. We have demonstrated that with stratified pooling we can combine local mortality monitoring systems and enhance monitoring of mortality across Europe. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012. Source

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