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Salcedo J.,University of Valencia | Barbera R.,University of Valencia | Matencio E.,Hero Institute for Infant Nutrition | Alegria A.,University of Valencia | Lagarda M.J.,University of Valencia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The effect of the main gangliosides (GM1, GM3, GD3) and free sialic acid (Neu5Ac) upon the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria implicated in infant diarrhoea is assessed in vitro using the Caco-2 cell line. Concentrations of the bioactive compounds found in the bioaccessible (soluble) fraction of infant formula and human milk are employed. Bacterial adhesion behaviour included enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella entericaserovartyphi, Shigella sonnei, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori. Three different approaches were assayed: pre-incubation of bacteria and compounds before addition to cells (competition); pre-incubation of the cells with compounds (exclusion); and pre-incubation of cells with bacteria (displacement). Furthermore, the spatial localization of the most abundant gangliosides, GM3 and GD3, in Caco-2 cells has been determined using confocal microscopy. Results show that GM3, GD 3, GM1 and Neu5Ac at the assayed concentrations are able to interfere with the adhesion of several pathogenic bacteria involved in neonatal diseases-the greatest effect corresponding to Neu5Ac, followed by GD3, GM1 and GM3. Gangliosides GM3 and GD3 are located in the apical and basolateral membranes of the Caco-2 cells. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lacomba R.,University of Valencia | Salcedo J.,University of Valencia | Alegria A.,University of Valencia | Barbera R.,University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2011

Sialic acid and gangliosides content and profiles were analyzed in infant formulae, whey protein concentrates and human milk. In infant formulae, N-acetylneuraminic (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic (Neu5Gc) acid ranged from 147.6-199.7 to 3.3-8.3 mg L-1, in whey protein concentrate from 1.6-2.4 g 100 g-1 to 2.8-20.2 mg 100 g-1 and in human milk from 299.9 to 2.1 mg L-1. Gangliosides ranged from 0.25 to 2.29 mg lipid-bound sialic acid L-1 in reconstituted infant formula, the main gangliosides being GD3 (73.3-55.5%), GM3 (3.5-36.6%) and GT3 (1.4-14.1%) and O-acetyl-GD3 (5.3-18.9%). In whey protein concentrates, 0.7-55.6 mg lipid-bound sialic acid 100 g-1 were found with the profile 82.1-86.9% GD3 and 1.8-2.5% GM3. Human milk gave 2 mg lipid-bound sialic acid L-1, with the profile 97.4% GM3 and 2.5% GD3. Intakes of sialic acid and gangliosides are lower with infant formulae versus human milk, especially during the first stages of life. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Lacomba R.,University of Valencia | Salcedo J.,University of Valencia | Alegria A.,University of Valencia | Barbera R.,University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effects of simulated gastrointestinal digestion upon sialic acid and gangliosides in infant and follow-on formulas and human milk, as well as their bioaccessibility, have been evaluated. The gastric stage is the step that causes a greater decrease in sialic acid and ganglioside contents. The intestinal stage only decreases the total and individual contents of gangliosides. After gastrointestinal digestion, neither sialic acid nor gangliosides were found in the nonbioaccessible fraction. The highest bioaccessibility (100 × content in soluble fraction after gastrointestinal digestion/total content) of sialic acid is found in human milk (87%), followed by infant formula (77%) and follow-on formula (16%). In the case of gangliosides, the highest bioaccessibility is present in the follow-on formula (51%), followed by human milk (29%) and infant formula (5%). © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Salcedo J.,University of Valencia | Lacomba R.,University of Valencia | Alegria A.,University of Valencia | Barbera R.,University of Valencia | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Two methods for determining sialic acid in infant formulas - spectrophotometry and HPLC with fluorescence detection - have been optimised and validated, the first one allows to determine total sialic acid while the second allows to differentiate the two main forms of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc)). A common sample preparation procedure (hydrolysis and purification) for both methods has been proposed. The linearity (from 6 to 150 μg of total sialic acid in the assay for spectrophotometry, and from 12.5 to 250 ng and 1 to 5 ng of Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc, respectively, for HPLC) is adequate. The detection and quantification limits (0.29 and 0.97 mg of total sialic acid/L of reconstituted sample, respectively, for spectrophotometry, and 0.03 and 0.08 mg Neu5Ac/L; 0.003 and 0.009 mg Neu5Gc/L of reconstituted sample, respectively, for HPLC) are low enough for the determination of sialic acid in infant formulas. The precision of both methods, expressed as relative standard deviation, is less than 6%, and the accuracy evaluated by recovery assays show 104% recovery for spectrophotometry; 95% for Neu5Ac and 109% for Neu5Gc for HPLC. Samples analysed show no significant differences (α < 0.05) attributable to the method used; consequently, both of them could be applied after common sample preparation, the choice of technique depending on the facilities available in the laboratory. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Braquehais F.R.,Hero Institute for Infant Nutrition | Braquehais F.R.,Hero Spain S.A. | Cava M.J.B.,Hero Institute for Infant Nutrition
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2011

α-Glucans are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by α-glycosidic bonds (starch, maltodextrin and maltose). The role of these compounds in human nutrition has been established mainly as an energy substrate, but other physiological effects have been widely described. In this review, we present the results from our systematic review of the principal scientific literature about the uses of α-glucans in special formulas for infant and clinical nutrition. Modifications of carbohydrate composition are used in special formulas for infants, with the aim of being used as nutritional treatment for minor digestive disorders (lactose intolerance, gastroesophageal reflux and gut immaturity of premature newborns). The role and uses of α-glucans in clinical nutrition, mainly RS, for treatment and prevention of constipation, colorectal cancer and diabetes has been reviewed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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