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Bermudez-Brito M.,University of Granada | Munoz-Quezada S.,University of Granada | Gomez-Llorente C.,University of Granada | Romero F.,Hero Global Technology Center for Infant Nutrition | Gil A.,University of Granada
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance to the commensal microbiota and food antigens. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate the activation of dendritic cells (DC), polarising the subsequent activity of T-cells. Nevertheless, information about their underlying mechanisms of action is scarce. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a potentially probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) on human DC challenged with Escherichia coli. The results showed that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12p70 were higher in the cells treated with live L. rhamnosus than in the cells treated with the CFS. In the presence of E. coli, the supernatant was more effective than the probiotic bacteria in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, live L. rhamnosus potently induced the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2, whereas the CFS increased the secretion of TGF-β1. However, in the presence of E. coli, both treatments restored the levels of TGF-β. The probiotic strain L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 and its CFS were able to activate the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, enhancing innate immunity. The two treatments induced gene transcription of TLR-9. Live L. rhamnosus activated the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 genes, whereas the CFS increased the expression of TLR-1 and TLR-5 genes. In response to the stimulation with probiotic/CFS and E. coli, the expression of each gene tested was notably increased, with the exception of TNF-α and NFKBIA. In conclusion, the CFS exhibited an extraordinary ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by DC, and may be used as an effective and safer alternative to live bacteria. © 2014 The Authors.

Munoz-Quezada S.,University of Granada | Bermudez-Brito M.,University of Granada | Chenoll E.,University of Valencia | Genoves S.,University of Valencia | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies conducted using different probiotic micro-organisms have demonstrated their ability to interfere with the growth and virulence of a variety of enteropathogens. The reported beneficial effects of the use of probiotics to complement antibiotic therapy or prevent diarrhoea or gastrointestinal infection in infants have increased in recent years. In the present study, we demonstrated the capacity of supernatants obtained from three novel probiotics (Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036) isolated from the faeces of breastfed infants to inhibit the growth of enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic (EPEC) bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella. To assess their potential antimicrobial activity, the 17 and 24 h cell-free supernatants broth concentrates (10 × ) having 1, 2 or 4 % of the three probiotics were incubated with EPEC bacteria strains. After 17 h of co-culture, the supernatants were able to inhibit the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella up to 40, 55 and 81 %, respectively. However, the inhibitory capacity of some supernatants was maintained or completely lost when the supernatants (pH 3·0) were neutralised (pH 6·5). Overall, these results demonstrated that L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 produce compounds that exhibited strain-specific inhibition of enterobacteria and have the potential to be used as probiotics in functional foods. © 2013 The Authors.

Munoz-Quezada S.,University of Granada | Chenoll E.,University of Valencia | Vieites J.M.,University of Granada | Genoves S.,University of Valencia | And 9 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterise novel strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with probiotic properties from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants. Of the 4680 isolated colonies, 758 exhibited resistance to low pH and tolerance to high concentrations of bile salts; of these, only forty-two exhibited a strong ability to adhere to enterocytes in vitro. The identities of the isolates were confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing, which permitted the grouping of the forty-two bacteria into three different strains that showed more than 99Â % sequence identity with Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium breve, respectively. The strain identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions. Strains were assayed for enzymatic activity and carbohydrate utilisation, and they were deposited in the Collection Nationale de Cultures de Microorganismes (CNCM) of the Institute Pasteur and named L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. The strains were susceptible to antibiotics and did not produce undesirable metabolites, and their safety was assessed by acute ingestion in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mouse models. The three novel strains inhibited in vitro the meningitis aetiological agent Listeria monocytogenes and human rotavirus infections. B. breve CNCM I-4035 led to a higher IgA concentration in faeces and plasma of mice. Overall, these results suggest that L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 should be considered as probiotic strains, and their human health benefits should be further evaluated. © 2013 The Authors.

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