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Warwick, Australia

Yu G.T.,North Dakota State University | Horsley R.D.,North Dakota State University | Zhang B.,Zhejiang University | Franckowiak J.D.,Hermitage Research Station
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2010

Semi-dwarfing genes have been widely used in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs in many parts of the world, but the success in developing barley cultivars with semi-dwarfing genes has been limited in North America. Exploiting new semi-dwarfing genes may help in solving this dilemma. A recombinant inbred line population was developed by crossing ZAU 7, a semi-dwarf cultivar from China, to ND16092, a tall breeding line from North Dakota. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling plant height, a linkage map comprised of 111 molecular markers was constructed. Simple interval mapping was performed for each of the eight environments. A consistent QTL for plant height was found on chromosome 7HL. This QTL is not associated with maturity and rachis internode length. We suggest the provisional name Qph-7H for this QTL. Qph-7H from ZAU 7 reduced plant height to about 3/4 of normal; thus, Qph-7H is considered a semi-dwarfing gene. Other QTLs for plant height were found, but their expression was variable across the eight environments tested. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source

Chauhan Y.S.,Fisheries and Forestry DAFF | Solomon K.F.,Hermitage Research Station | Rodriguez D.,University of Queensland
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

Recurring water stresses are a major risk factor for rainfed maize cropping across the highly diverse agro-ecological environments of Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NNSW). Enhanced understanding of such agro-ecological diversity is necessary to more consistently sample target production environments for testing and targeting release of improved germplasm, and to improve the efficiency of the maize pre-breeding and breeding programs of Qld and New South Wales. Here, we used the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) - a well validated maize crop model to characterize the key distinctive water stress patterns and risk to production across the main maize growing regions of Qld and NNSW located between 15.8° and 31.5°S, and 144.5° and 151.8°E. APSIM was configured to simulate daily water supply demand ratios (SDRs) around anthesis as an indicator of the degree of water stress, and the final grain yield. Simulations were performed using daily climatic records during the period between 1890 and 2010 for 32 sites-soils in the target production regions. The runs were made assuming adequate nitrogen supply for mid-season maize hybrid Pioneer 3153. Hierarchical complete linkage analyses of the simulated yield resulted in five major clusters showing distinct probability distribution of the expected yields and geographic patterns. The drought stress patterns and their frequencies using SDRs were quantified using multivariate statistical methods. The identified stress patterns included no stress, mid-season (flowering) stress, and three terminal stresses differing in terms of severity. The combined frequency of flowering and terminal stresses was highest (82.9%), mainly in sites-soils combinations in the west of Qld and NNSW. Yield variability across the different sites-soils was significantly related to the variability in frequencies of water stresses. Frequencies of water stresses within each yield cluster tended to be similar, but different across clusters. Sites-soils falling within each yield cluster therefore could be treated as distinct maize production environments for testing and targeting newly developed maize cultivars and hybrids for adaptation to water stress patterns most common to those environments. © 2013. Source

Lu S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Platz G.J.,Hermitage Research Station | Edwards M.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Friesen T.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Phytopathology | Year: 2010

Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at the mating type (MAT) loci of Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt), which causes net form (NF) net blotch, and P. teres f. maculata (Ptm), which causes spot form (SF) net blotch of barley. MAT-specific SNP primers were developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the two forms were differentiated by distinct PCR products: PttMAT1-1 (1,143 bp) and PttMAT1-2 (1,421 bp) for NF MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates; PtmMAT1-1 (194 bp) and PtmMAT1-2 (939 bp) for SF MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates, respectively. Specificity was validated using 37 NF and 17 SF isolates collected from different geographic regions. Both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 SNP primers retained respective specificity when used in duplex PCR. No cross-reactions were observed with DNA from P. graminea, P. triticirepentis, or other ascomycetes, or barley. Single or mixed infections of the two different forms were also differentiated. This study provides the first evidence that the limited SNPs at the MAT locus are sufficient for distinguishing closely related heterothallic ascomycetes at subspecies levels, thus allowing pathogenicity and mating type characteristics of the fungus to be determined simultaneously. Methods presented will facilitate pathogen detection, disease management, and epidemiological studies. Source

Druka A.,Scottish Crop Research Institute | Franckowiak J.,Hermitage Research Station | Lundqvist U.,Nordic Genetic Resource Center | Bonar N.,Scottish Crop Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Since the early 20th century, barley (Hordeum vulgare) has been a model for investigating the effects of physical and chemical mutagens and for exploring the potential of mutation breeding in crop improvement. As a consequence, extensive and wellcharacterized collections of morphological and developmental mutants have been assembled that represent a valuable resource for exploring a wide range of complex and fundamental biological processes. We constructed a collection of 881 backcrossed lines containing mutant alleles that induce a majority of the morphological and developmental variation described in this species. After genotyping these lines with up to 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms, comparison to their recurrent parent defined the genetic location of 426 mutant alleles to chromosomal segments, each representing on average <3% of the barley genetic map. We show how the gene content in these segments can be predicted through conservation of synteny with model cereal genomes, providing a route to rapid gene identification. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

Shahinnia F.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Shahinnia F.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Druka A.,James Hutton Institute | Franckowiak J.,Hermitage Research Station | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Spike density in barley is under the control of several major genes, as documented previously by genetic analysis of a number of morphological mutants. One such class of mutants affects the rachis internode length leading to dense or compact spikes and the underlying genes were designated dense spike (dsp). We previously delimited two introgressed genomic segments on chromosome 3H (21 SNP loci, 35.5 cM) and 7H (17 SNP loci, 20.34 cM) in BW265, a BC 7F 3 nearly isogenic line (NIL) of cv. Bowman as potentially containing the dense spike mutant locus dsp.ar, by genotyping 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in both BW265 and its recurrent parent. Here, the gene was allocated by highresolution bi-parental mapping to a 0.37 cM interval between markers SC57808 (Hv_SPL14)-CAPSK06413 residing on the short and long arm at the genetic centromere of chromosome 7H, respectively. This region putatively contains more than 800 genes as deduced by comparison with the collinear regions of barley, rice, sorghum and Brachypodium, Classical map-based isolation of the gene dsp.ar thus will be complicated due to the infavorable relationship of genetic to physical distances at the target locus. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

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