Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center

Hermiston, OR, United States

Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center

Hermiston, OR, United States
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Colburn B.C.,Oregon State University | Mehlenbacher S.A.,Oregon State University | Mehlenbacher S.A.,Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Sathuvalli V.R.,Oregon State University
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2017

Microsatellite markers, also known as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are useful in genetics and plant breeding for marker-assisted selection, cultivar fingerprinting, and kinship studies. They were previously developed for European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) from enriched libraries, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fragments, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This study utilized the ‘Jefferson’ transcriptome sequence to develop microsatellite markers for hazelnut. Microsatellites were mined from the transcriptome sequence and aligned with the corresponding genomic sequence using a BLASTN search, and primers were designed from the genomic sequence. From a total of 1432 identified microsatellites, 382 primer pairs were designed for repeats with motifs of three base pairs or longer and at least five repeats, and a few di-repeat sequences. The primers were initially screened for polymorphism with a set of 24 C. avellana accessions, and those that were polymorphic were characterized using a set of 63 accessions. One hundred nine polymorphic microsatellite markers that generated one or two fragments per accession were characterized, with AAG, AGC, and ACT being the most common motifs. Two additional SSR primer pairs generated three PCR products in a few accessions. Of the 109 loci, 53 were placed on the linkage map of the mapping population OSU 252.146 × OSU 414.062, and 22 were assigned to linkage groups using alternate segregating populations. A dendrogram constructed from the SSR fingerprints at the 109 new marker loci mostly showed clustering of accessions from similar geographic origins and confirmed the tremendous amount of genetic diversity present within C. avellana. These markers will be useful for fingerprinting, marker-assisted selection, and genetic studies in hazelnut. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Smith L.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Smith L.A.,Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Eissenstat D.M.,Pennsylvania State University | Kaye M.W.,Pennsylvania State University
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2017

In forested ecosystems, topography and tree species contribute to spatial variability in carbon (C) dynamics through differential rates of C uptake and storage; therefore, estimates of species-specific and spatial variability in C can strengthen ecosystem budgets. To produce such estimates, we deconstructed watershed-scale C and component pools (e.g., wood biomass, litter) and fluxes at a fine scale using a small mixed deciduous forest catchment to determine the variation due to topographic position and species. Factors affecting fluxes included aspect, slope curvature, tree species contributions, and litter production. Annual C uptake into wood varied across the catchment from 0 to 34 kg C·year−1 and was 20% greater on southern aspects than northern ones and 33% greater in swales than non-swale slopes. Of the more than 20 tree species found in the forest canopy of the catchment, highest C uptake in woody biomass was measured in Quercus rubra L. growing in swales, followed by Quercus prinus L. syn. growing on the southern aspect, with the lowest aboveground wood increment measured in Pinus at higher elevations on non-swale slopes. Quercus leaf litter moved from where it dropped into litter traps to where it settled on the forest floor, shifting the location of litter C inputs to the soil. Local variation in aboveground C rivals regional variation across regions and has the potential to introduce error when scaling C measures from points to landscapes. © 2017, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.

Funke C.N.,Oregon State University | Nikolaeva O.V.,University of Idaho | Green K.J.,University of Idaho | Tran L.T.,University of Idaho | And 10 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2017

Potato virus Y (PVY) is a serious threat to potato production due to effects on tuber yield and quality, in particular, due to induction of potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), typically associated with recombinant strains of PVY. These recombinant strains have been spreading in the United States for the past several years, although the reasons for this continuing spread remained unclear. To document and assess this spread between 2011 and 2015, strain composition of PVY isolates circulating in the Columbia Basin potato production area was determined from hundreds of seed lots of various cultivars. The proportion of nonrecombinant PVYO isolates circulating in Columbia Basin potato dropped ninefold during this period, from 63% of all PVY-positive plants in 2011 to less than 7% in 2015. This drop in PVYO was concomitant with the rise of the recombinant PVYN-Wi strain incidence, from less than 27% of all PVY-positive plants in 2011 to 53% in 2015. The proportion of the PVYNTN recombinant strain, associated with PTNRD symptoms in susceptible cultivars, increased from 7% in 2011 to approximately 24% in 2015. To further address the shift in strain abundance, screenhouse experiments were conducted and revealed that three of the four most popular potato cultivars grown in the Columbia Basin exhibited strain-specific resistance against PVYO. Reduced levels of systemic movement of PVYO in such cultivars would favor spread of recombinant strains in the field. The negative selection against the nonrecombinant PVYO strain is likely caused by the presence of the Nytbr gene identified in potato cultivars in laboratory experiments. Presence of strain-specific resistance genes in potato cultivars may represent the driving force changing PVY strain compositionto predominantly recombinant strains in potato production areas. © 2017 The American Phytopathological Society.

Goyer A.,Oregon State University | Goyer A.,Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Hamlin L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Crosslin J.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most important plant viruses affecting potato production. The interactions between potato and PVY are complex and the outcome of the interactions depends on the potato genotype, the PVY strain, and the environmental conditions. A potato cultivar can induce resistance to a specific PVY strain, yet be susceptible to another. How a single potato cultivar responds to PVY in both compatible and incompatible interactions is not clear. Results: In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to investigate and compare the transcriptional changes in leaves of potato upon inoculation with PVY. We used two potato varieties: Premier Russet, which is resistant to the PVY strain O (PVYO) but susceptible to the strain NTN (PVYNTN), and Russet Burbank, which is susceptible to all PVY strains that have been tested. Leaves were inoculated with PVYO or PVYNTN, and samples were collected 4 and 10 h post inoculation (hpi). A larger number of differentially expressed (DE) genes were found in the compatible reactions compared to the incompatible reaction. For all treatments, the majority of DE genes were down-regulated at 4 hpi and up-regulated at 10 hpi. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed enrichment of the biological process GO term "Photosynthesis, light harvesting" specifically in PVYO-inoculated Premier Russet leaves, while the GO term "nucleosome assembly" was largely overrepresented in PVYNTN-inoculated Premier Russet leaves and PVYO-inoculated Russet Burbank leaves but not in PVYO-inoculated Premier Russet leaves. Fewer genes were DE over 4-fold in the incompatible reaction compared to the compatible reactions. Amongst these, five genes were DE only in PVYO-inoculated Premier Russet leaves, and all five were down-regulated. These genes are predicted to encode for a putative ABC transporter, a MYC2 transcription factor, a VQ-motif containing protein, a non-specific lipid-transfer protein, and a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase-hydroxylase. Conclusions: Our results show that the incompatible and compatible reactions in Premier Russet shared more similarities, in particular during the initial response, than the compatible reactions in the two different hosts. Our results identify potential key processes and genes that determine the fate of the reaction, compatible or incompatible, between PVY and its host. © 2015 Goyer et al.

Colburn B.C.,Oregon State University | Mehlenbacher S.A.,Oregon State University | Mehlenbacher S.A.,Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Sathuvalli V.R.,Oregon State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2015

European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is a significant crop in Oregon, where 99% of United States hazelnuts are produced. Eastern filbert blight (EFB) caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Mu¨ ller is an important disease that infects the trees, reduces yield, and causes premature death. Managing the disease through cultural methods and fungicide applications is laborious and expensive, and genetic host resistance is considered the most viable option for control. Genetic resistance from ‘Gasaway’ has been used to develop resistant cultivars including Yamhill and Jefferson, but concern about the durability of this single resistance gene stimulated a search for additional sources of resistance. This study used three recently identified sources of EFB resistance: ‘Culpl_a’ from Spain, ‘Crvenje’ from Serbia, and OSU 495.072 from southern Russia. RAPD markers linked to resistance from ‘Gasaway’ were absent in all three accessions. Disease response was noted in segregating progenies following greenhouse or structure inoculation, and the resistance loci were mapped using microsatellite markers. In only four of the nine progenies did segregation for disease response fit the ratio of 1 resistant:1 susceptible expected for a single locus, a heterozygous resistant parent, and a dominant allele for resistance. Three progenies showed an excess of resistant seedlings while two showed a deficiency of resistant seedlings. The reciprocal translocations reported in several leading hazelnut cultivars may be present in the parents of the studied progenies, and affecting the segregation ratios. Microsatellite marker A614, previously mapped to linkage group (LG) 6, was closely linked to resistance from all three sources. Maps were constructed for LG6 for each resistant parent using microsatellite markers. The three resistance loci mapped to the same region on LG6 where resistance from ‘Gasaway’ and OSU 408.040 are located. The resistance alleles in all five accessions may be the same, or more likely are a cluster of different resistance genes in the same region. Markers LG628, LG610, and LG696 will be useful to breed new hazelnut cultivars with resistance from Culpl_a, Crvenje, and OSU 495.072. © 2015, American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.

Kaiser C.,Oregon State University | Hamm P.B.,Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Gieck S.,Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center | David N.,Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center | And 3 more authors.
HortScience | Year: 2011

In vitro dose responses of several calcium and potassium salts were determined on some commercially significant plant pathogens, including: Helminthosporium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi race 2, Colletotricum coccodes, Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora erythroseptica, Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora megasperma, Pythium ultimum, and Venturia inaequalis. Mycelial growth inhibition was both salt-specific and dose-related. Pythium ultimum was completely inhibited by 75 mg·L-1or greater calcium propionate, but needed 300 mg·L-1or greater of calcium acetate and 40 mL· L-1or greater of potassium silicate for complete inhibition. Phytophthora infestans was completely inhibited by 150 mg·L-1or greater calcium acetate, 150 mg·L-1or greater calcium propionate, or 5 mL· L-1or greater potassium silicate. Phytophthora cactorum was completely inhibited by 300 mg·L-1or greater calcium propionate, but required 600 mg·L-1or greater calcium acetate and 10 mL· L-1or greater potassium silicate for complete inhibition. Phytophthora cinnamomi was completely inhibited by calcium propionate at 600 mg·L-1or greater or by 10 mL· L-1or greater potassium silicate. Only potassium silicate inhibited Phytophthora megasperma, Phytophthora erthroseptica, V. inequalis, and H. solani at concentrations of 5 mL· L-1or greater, 20 mL· L-1or greater, 40 mL· L-1or greater, or 80 mL· L-1or greater, respectively. Potassium acetate did not completely inhibit any of the pathogens in this study when tested at concentrations 1200 mg·L-1or less.

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