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Hebling A.,HermInio Ometto University Center | Hebling A.,University of Campinas | Esquisatto M.A.M.,University Graduate Center | Aro A.A.,University of Campinas | Gomes L.,University of Campinas

The organization of knee articular cartilage of the bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) differs in relation to morphofunctional adaptation in many aspects from similar structures in mammals. Thus, we investigated the structural organization and distribution of the extracellular matrix components in three articular cartilage regions in the distal epiphysis of the femur and proximal epiphysis of the tibia in male bullfrogs at 7, 540 and 1,080 days after metamorphosis. Cartilage thickness and cell density decreased in all regions with age. The basophilia differed among cartilage sites during aging. Calcium deposits were detected in growth cartilage of the femur and tibia in older animals. Immunohistochemical staining for chondroitin-6-sulfate was positive in the pericellular and territorial matrix in all samples. Positive immunostaining for type I collagen was observed in the superficial layer at all ages and in ossification centers of older animals. Reactivity to type II collagen was intense and was found throughout the stroma at all ages. Ultrastructural analysis of the epiphyseal region, in young animals, showed that the cytoplasm of chondrocytes was rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex and mitochondria. In old animals, were observed a reduction in the size and number of mitochondria, disintegration of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolization of the Golgi complex. The bullfrog articular cartilage presented structural and organizational changes during aging which may contribute to the functional cartilage deterioration in old animals. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Melo P.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Massarioli A.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Denny C.,University of Campinas | Dos Santos L.F.,HermInio Ometto University Center | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry

Nearly 20 million tons of winery by-products, with many biological activities, are discarded each year in the world. The extraction of bioactive compounds from Chenin Blanc, Petit Verdot, and Syrah grape by-products, produced in the semi-arid region in Brazil, was optimized by a Central Composite Rotatable Design. The phenolic compounds profile, antioxidant capacity against synthetic free radicals (DPPH and ABTS), reactive oxygen species (ROS; peroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hypochlorous acid), cytotoxicity assay (MTT) and quantification of TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells were conducted. Gallic acid, syringic acid, procyanidins B1 and B2, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside, delfinidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-glucoside were the main phenolic compounds identified. In general, rachis showed higher antioxidant capacity than pomace extract, especially for Chenin Blanc. All extracts showed low cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells and Petit Verdot pomace suppressed TNF-α liberation in vitro. Therefore, these winery by-products can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, with great potential for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Libardi C.A.,University of Campinas | Souza G.V.,University of Campinas | Gaspari A.F.,University of Campinas | dos Santos C.F.,University of Campinas | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Sports Sciences

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate- to high-intensity resistance and concurrent training on inflammatory biomarkers and functional capacity in sedentary middle-aged healthy men. Participants were selected on a random basis for resistance training (n=12), concurrent training (n=11) and a control group (n=13). They performed three weekly sessions for 16 weeks (resistance training: 10 exercises with 368-10 repetition maximum; concurrent training: 6 exercises with 3 × 8-10 repetition maximum, followed by 30 minutes of walking or running at 55-85% V̇O 2peak). Maximal strength was tested in bench press and leg press. The peak oxygen uptake (V̇O 2peak) was measured by an incremental exercise test. Tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein were determined. The upper- and lower-body maximal strength increase for both resistance (+42.52%; +20.9%, respectively) and concurrent training (+28.35%; +21.5%, respectively) groups (P=0.0001). V̇O 2peak increased in concurrent training when comparing pre- and post-training (P=0.0001; +15.6%). No differences were found in tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 for both groups after the exercise. C-reactive protein increased in resistance training (P=0.004). These findings demonstrated that 16 weeks of moderate- to high-intensity training could improve functional capacity, but did not decrease inflammatory biomarkers in middle-aged men. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Mourao V.B.,HermInio Ometto University Center | Giraldi G.M.,HermInio Ometto University Center | Neves L.M.G.,HermInio Ometto University Center | de Gaspari de Gaspi F.O.,HermInio Ometto University Center | And 6 more authors.
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira

Purpose: To investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Mikania glomerata Spreng (Asteraceae) on the activity of Bothrops jararaca snake venom in Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty four rats Wistar were divided into six groups of nine animals in each: control treated with saline; control treated with B. jararaca venom; control treated with M. glomerata extract; B. jararaca venom incubated with M. glomerata extract at proportions of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4. Results: Histopathological and morphometric analysis showed that intradermal administration of snake venom incubated with the hydroalcoholic extract at proportions of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 promoted a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and a marked decrease in edema after the third hour. There was also a significant reduction in the intensity of the hemorrhagic halo in animals receiving the snake venom incubated with the extract, with the observation of a progressive and parallel inhibition with increasing proportion of M. glomerata. Conclusion: The Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extract exerted effective anti-inflammatory and antihemorrhagic activity against the effects induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom. Source

This study evaluated the wound healing activity of a glycolic extract of Dillenia indica (GED) prepared from the mature fruits of the plant applied alone or in combination with microcurrent stimulation to skin wounds surgically induced on the back of Wistar rats. Methods. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: (A) negative control group; (B) group receiving microcurrent application (MC; [10 mA/2 mins]); (C) group treated with GED; (D) group treated with an emulsion containing GED; (E) group treated with GED and MC, and (F) group treated with the emulsion containing GED and MC. Tissue samples were obtained 2, 6, and 10 days after injury and underwent structural and morphometric analysis. Results. There were observed differences in wound healing among the various treatments when compared to the control group. The combination of microcurrent plus extract or microcurrent plus emulsion containing GED was advantageous in all of the studied parameters (P < 0.05) when compared to the other groups with positive effects seen regarding newly formed tissue, number of fibroblasts, and number of newly formed blood vessels. The morphometric data confirmed the structural findings. Conclusion. Microcurrent application alone or combined with GED exerted significant effects on wound healing in this experimental model. This was probably due to the efficacy of microcurrent application since the extract alone did not significantly accelerate the healing process. D indica fruit extract most likely participates in the wound healing process as a result of its anti-inflammatory properties. Source

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