Carlesso N.,Herman lls Center for Pediatric Research |
Carlesso N.,Indiana University |
Cardoso A.A.,Indiana University
Current Opinion in Hematology | Year: 2010
Purpose of review: In the postnatal life, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches are specialized microenvironments in the bone marrow that are essential for the maintenance and function of HSCs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the concept of HSC niche in light of recent studies that broaden its complexity and better define its molecular regulation. Also, we will discuss recent studies addressing the impact of leukemia development on HSC regulation and normal hematopoiesis, while discussing the potential regulation of leukemia-initiating cells by bone marrow niches. Recent findings: Recent studies have identified new cellular and molecular components of the HSC niche and highlighted reciprocal interactions between the hematopoietic cells and their niches. These studies indicate that the HSC niche is not constituted by a single cell type but rather should be considered as a multicellular functional unit. Finally, advances have been made that provide promising insights into the the instructive role of the bone marrow microenvironment in hematological malignancies. Summary: Increasing insights into the cell-cell cross talk between the hematopoietic system and its microenvironment in the bone marrow, and in particular in the interplay of HSCs with their niche(s), should provide new tools for combinatorial therapies in bone marrow failure and bone marrow cancers. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Staser K.,Herman lls Center For Pediatric Research |
Yang F.-C.,Herman lls Center For Pediatric Research |
Yang F.-C.,Indiana University |
Clapp D.W.,Herman lls Center For Pediatric Research |
Clapp D.W.,Indiana University
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease | Year: 2012
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disease that results from either heritable or spontaneous autosomal dominant mutations in the NF1 gene. A second-hit mutation precedes the predominant NF1 neoplasms, which include myeloid leukemia, optic glioma, and plexiform neurofibroma. Despite this requisite NF1 loss of heterozygosity in the tumor cell of origin, nontumorigenic cells contribute to both generalized and specific disease manifestations. In mouse models of plexiform neurofibroma formation, Nf1 haploinsufficient mast cells promote inflammation, accelerating tumor formation and growth. These recruited mast cells, hematopoietic effector cells long known to permeate neurofibroma tissue, mediate key mitogenic signals that contribute to vascular ingrowth, collagen deposition, and tumor growth. Thus, the plexiform neurofibroma microenvironment involves a tumor/stromal interaction with the hematopoietic system that depends, at the molecular level, on a stem cell factor/c-kit-mediated signaling axis. These observations parallel findings in other NF1 disease manifestations and are clearly relevant to medical management of these neurofibromas. Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Safa A.R.,Indiana University |
Pollok K.E.,Indiana University |
Pollok K.E.,Herman lls Center For Pediatric Research
Cancers | Year: 2011
Cellular FLICE (FADD-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is a major resistance factor and critical anti-apoptotic regulator that inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Fas-L, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis as well as chemotherapy-triggered apoptosis in malignant cells. c-FLIP is expressed as long (c-FLIPL), short (c-FLIPS), and c-FLIPR splice variants in human cells. c-FLIP binds to FADD and/or caspase-8 or -10 in a ligand-dependent and-independent fashion, which in turn prevents death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation and subsequent activation of the caspase cascade. Moreover, c-FLIPL and c-FLIPS are known to have multifunctional roles in various signaling pathways, as well as activating and/or upregulating several cytoprotective signaling molecules. Upregulation of c-FLIP has been found in various tumor types, and its downregulation has been shown to restore apoptosis triggered by cytokines and various chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, c-FLIP is an important target for cancer therapy. For example, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that specifically knockdown the expression of c-FLIPL in diverse human cancer cell lines augmented TRAIL-induced DISC recruitment and increased the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents, thereby enhancing effector caspase stimulation and apoptosis. Moreover, small molecules causing degradation of c-FLIP as well as decreasing mRNA and protein levels of c-FLIPL and c-FLIPS splice variants have been found, and efforts are underway to develop other c-FLIP-targeted cancer therapies. This review focuses on (1) the functional role of c-FLIP splice variants in preventing apoptosis and inducing cytokine and drug resistance; (2) the molecular mechanisms that regulate c-FLIP expression; and (3) strategies to inhibit c-FLIP expression and function. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Nabinger S.C.,Indiana University |
Chan R.J.,Herman lls Center for Pediatric Research |
Chan R.J.,Indiana University
Current Opinion in Hematology | Year: 2012
Purpose of review: The protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 is encoded by PTPN11 and positively regulates physiologic hematopoiesis. Mutations of PTPN11 cause the congenital disorder Noonan syndrome and pathologically promote human leukemias. Given the high frequency of PTPN11 mutations in human disease, several animal models have been generated to investigate Shp2 in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function and leukemic transformation. Recent findings: Two independent animal models bearing knockout of Shp2 in hematopoietic tissues clearly demonstrate the necessity of Shp2 in HSC repopulating capacity. Reduced HSC quiescence and increased apoptosis accounts for diminished HSC function in the absence of Shp2. The germline mutation Shp2D61G enhances HSC activity and induces myeloproliferative disease (MPD) in vivo by HSC transformation. The somatic mutation Shp2D61Y produces MPD in vivo but fails to induce acute leukemia, whereas somatic Shp2E76K produces MPD in vivo that transforms into full-blown leukemia. HSCs expressing Shp2D61Y do not generate MPD in recipient animals upon transplantation, whereas Shp2E76K-expressing HSCs yield MPD as well as acute leukemia in recipient animals. The mechanisms underlying the unique functions of Shp2D61Y and Shp2E76K in HSC transformation and leukemogenesis continue to be under investigation. Summary: Further understanding of the physiologic and pathologic role of Shp2 in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis, respectively, will yield information needed to develop therapeutic strategies targeted to Shp2 in human disease. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Mund J.A.,Indiana University |
Mund J.A.,Herman lls Center for Pediatric Research |
Case J.,Indiana University |
Case J.,Herman lls Center for Pediatric Research
Current Opinion in Hematology | Year: 2011
Purpose of Review: Since the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), there have been conflicting reports as to the precise phenotypic identity, and thus an accurate description of the function of these cells in disease pathology is lacking. This review will detail the protocols that have been published within 2010 to help decipher the true identity of the various cells that have been reported as EPCs in numerous clinical trials. Recent Findings: Throughout 2010, three protocols have been published alleging to identify EPCs, yet only one provides a true nonhematopoietic origin for a cell that is classified as an EPC. In addition to the protocols published to try to establish a consensus definition, 10 studies involving EPCs across disease pathologies were published with various degrees of correlation to disease phenotype and cellular level. Summary: A true phenotypic definition of a circulating EPC capable of becoming an endothelial colony forming cell with proliferative potential has been given. It is now time the EPC field drops this ambiguous term (i.e. EPCs), as many studies purporting to measure EPCs are in fact still quantifying cells of a hematopoietic origin. It is necessary for cross study comparisons that a uniform phenotypic definition be adhered to when using the term EPC. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Shannon H.E.,Herman lls Center for Pediatric Research
Pancreas | Year: 2014
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate noninvasive bioluminescence imaging methods for differentially monitoring primary and abdominal metastatic tumor growth in mouse orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer.METHODS: A semiautomated maximum entropy segmentation method was implemented for the primary tumor region of interest, and a rule-based method for manually drawing a region of interest for the abdominal metastatic region was developed for monitoring tumor growth in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. The 2 region-of-interest methods were validated by having 2 observers independently segment Panc-1 tumors, and the results were compared with the number of mesenteric lymph node nodules and histopathologic assessment of liver metastases. The findings were extended to orthotopic tumors of the more metastatic MIA PaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cells where separate groups of animals were implanted with different numbers of cells.RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the segmentation methods were highly reliable, reproducible, and robust and allowed statistically significant discrimination in the growth rates of primary and abdominal metastatic tumors of different cell lines implanted with different numbers of cells.CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrate that primary tumors and abdominal metastatic foci in orthotopic pancreatic cancer models can be reliably quantified separately and noninvasively over time with bioluminescence imaging. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Periyasamy S.,University of Toledo |
Hinds T.,University of Toledo |
Shemshedini L.,University of Toledo |
Shou W.,Herman lls Center For Pediatric Research |
Sanchez E.R.,University of Toledo
Oncogene | Year: 2010
Prostate cancer (PCa) growth is dependent on androgens and on the androgen receptor (AR), which acts by modulating gene transcription. Tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins (FKBP52, FKBP51 and Cyp40) interact with AR in PCa cells, suggesting roles in AR-mediated gene transcription and cell growth. We report here that FKBP51 and Cyp40, but not FKBP52, are significantly elevated in PCa tissues and in androgen-dependent (AD) and androgen-independent (AI) cell lines. Overexpression of FKBP51 in AD LNCaP cells increased AR transcriptional activity in the presence and absence of androgen, whereas siRNA knockdown of FKBP51 dramatically decreased AD gene transcription and proliferation. Knockdown of Cyp40 also inhibited androgen-mediated transcription and growth in LNCaP cells. However, disruption of FKBP51 and Cyp40 in AI C4-2 cells caused only a small reduction in proliferation, indicating that Cyp40 and FKBP51 predominantly regulate AD cell proliferation. Under knockdown conditions, the inhibitory effects of TPR ligands, cyclosporine A (CsA) and FK506, on AR activity were not observed, indicating that Cyp40 and FKBP51 are the targets of CsA and FK506, respectively. Our findings show that FKBP51 and Cyp40 are positive regulators of AR that can be selectively targeted by CsA and FK506 to achieve inhibition of androgen-induced cell proliferation. These proteins and their cognate ligands thus provide new strategies in the treatment of PCa. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Jabeen R.,Herman lls Center for Pediatric Research |
Kaplan M.H.,Herman lls Center for Pediatric Research |
Kaplan M.H.,Indiana University
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2012
CD4+ T helper cells are obligate regulators of inflammatory disease. An expanding cadre of T helper (Th) subsets, specialized for promoting particular types of inflammation, function through the secretion of a restricted set of cytokines. The latest addition to the list of subsets is the Th9 cell that secretes IL-9 as a signature cytokine and contributes to several classes of inflammatory disease. In this review we focus on recent advances in understanding the development of Th9 cells, and how Th9 cells contribute to the orchestration of disease. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Oh E.,Herman lls Center For Pediatric Research |
Stull N.D.,Herman lls Center For Pediatric Research |
Mirmira R.G.,Herman lls Center For Pediatric Research |
Mirmira R.G.,Indiana University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014
Context: Evidence suggests that dysfunctional β-cell insulin release precedes type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D, respectively) and that enhancing the efficiency of insulin release from pancreatic islet β-cells may delay/prevent these diseases. We took advantage of the rare opportunity to test this paradigm using islets from human type 2 diabetic individuals. Objectives: Insulin release capacity is limited by the abundance of fusogenic soluble N-ethylmaleimide- sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Because enrichment of Syntaxin 4, a plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein, enhances β-cell function in mice, we investigated its potential to restore functional insulin secretion to human diabetic islets. Design: Human islets from type 2 diabetic and healthy individuals transduced to overexpress Syntaxin 4 were examined by perifusion analysis. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic recipient mice transplanted with Syntaxin 4-enriched or normal islets were assessed for rescue of diabetes in vivo. Results: Syntaxin 4 up-regulation inhumanislets enhanced-cell function by approximately 2-fold in each phase of secretion. Syntaxin 4 abundance in type 2 diabetes islets was approximately 70% reduced, and replenishment significantly improved insulin secretion. Islets from Syntaxin 4 overexpressing transgenic mice more effectively attenuated streptozotocin-induced diabetes than did control islets. Conclusions: These data show that the addition of just Syntaxin 4 is sufficient to significantly improve insulin secretory function to human type 2 diabetes islets retaining low levels of residual function and provide proof of concept that by building a more efficient β-cell with up-regulated Syntaxin 4, fewer islets may be required per patient, clearing a major barrier in transplantation therapy. © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.
Kelley M.R.,Indiana University |
Kelley M.R.,Herman lls Center for Pediatric Research |
Logsdon D.,Indiana University |
Fishel M.L.,Indiana University
Future Oncology | Year: 2014
Disruptions in DNA repair pathways predispose cells to accumulating DNA damage. A growing body of evidence indicates that tumors accumulate progressively more mutations in DNA repair proteins as cancers progress. DNA repair mechanisms greatly affect the response to cytotoxic treatments, so understanding those mechanisms and finding ways to turn dysregulated repair processes against themselves to induce tumor death is the goal of all DNA repair inhibition efforts. Inhibition may be direct or indirect. This burgeoning field of research is replete with promise and challenge, as more intricacies of each repair pathway are discovered. In an era of increasing concern about healthcare costs, use of DNA repair inhibitors can prove to be highly effective stewardship of R&D resources and patient expenses. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.