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News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

WASHINGTON--A new large-scale genetic study found that low body mass index (BMI) is likely not a causal risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, as earlier research had suggested, according to a study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. "Although prior studies found an association between Alzheimer's disease and low BMI, the new findings suggest this is not a causal relationship," said the study's senior author, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, M.D., D.M.Sc., Ph.D., Chief Physician at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Associate Research Professor at the University of Copenhagen. "The association can likely be explained by the fact that individuals with Alzheimer's disease are more likely to have low BMIs due to loss of appetite and weight loss in the early stages of the disease." More than 5 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease, according to the Alzheimer's Association's 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Report. The disease affects the brain and is a common form of dementia. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. To examine the association between Alzheimer's disease and low BMI, the researchers analyzed blood and DNA samples from 95,578 participants in the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS). Of the participants, 645 individuals developed Alzheimer's disease. The researchers analyzed the study participants' DNA for the presence of five genetic variants that have strong associations with BMI. Based on how many variants were found, participants were divided into four groups to reflect the likelihood of low BMI. The researchers also analyzed data from up to 249,796 individuals participating in the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium for the genetic variants closely linked to low BMI. The analysis found the presence of the genetic variants tied to low BMI was not associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. For comparison, the researchers examined if individuals with genetic variants connected to high BMI were more likely to have type 2 diabetes and did find the expected causal relationship. "We found individuals with lifelong low BMI due to genetic variation were not at increased risk of Alzheimer's disease," Frikke-Schmidt said. "Since genetic variants are not affected by other risk factors or diseases, this is a clean measure that can help to determine causality. The findings highlight that testing causality of a risk factor is pivotal before considering changing public health recommendations based on observational data alone." Other authors of the study include: Liv Tybjærg Nordestgaard and Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, of Rigshospitalet; and Børge G. Nordestgaard, of Herlev and Gentofte Hospital. All three also are affiliated with the University of Copenhagen. The research was supported by the Danish Medical Research Council, the Lundbeck Foundation, the Alzheimer Research Foundation, and the Research Fund at the Capital Region of Denmark. The study, "Body Mass Index and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: a Mendelian Randomization Study of 399,536 Individuals," will be published online at https:/ , ahead of print. Endocrinologists are at the core of solving the most pressing health problems of our time, from diabetes and obesity to infertility, bone health, and hormone-related cancers. The Endocrine Society is the world's oldest and largest organization of scientists devoted to hormone research and physicians who care for people with hormone-related conditions. The Society has more than 18,000 members, including scientists, physicians, educators, nurses and students in 122 countries. To learn more about the Society and the field of endocrinology, visit our site at http://www. . Follow us on Twitter at @TheEndoSociety and @EndoMedia.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

New research from the University of Copenhagen shows that mild to moderate levels of blood fats equals an increased risk of developing acute pancreatitis. It is far more serious than previously believed, according to the professor behind the study. Pancreatitis is very painful and may lead to fatalities. Until now, medical science has connected the risk of developing this illness to gallstone, a high intake of alcohol and very high concentrations of blood fats. However, new research reveals that even mildly increased levels of blood fats is a risk factor. The latest study has involved more than 115,000 participants from Denmark, and the results have just been published in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) Internal Medicine. “We were surprised by the results, which show that even a mild to moderate rise in blood fats increases the risk of developing acute pancreatitis. In fact, it turns out that the risk of developing pancreatitis is far greater than the risk of developing say, cardiovascular diseases,” says medical student Simon Bo Pedersen from the University of Copenhagen and Herlev and Gentofte Hospital. Normal levels of blood fats would typically be 0 to 2 mmol per liter, while 2-10 is classified as a mild to moderate increase. If blood fat levels rise above 10 mmol per liter, it is considered a very high increase and previously, this was considered the risk factor to look for in relation to pancreatitis.  However, this latest study shows that even a 2 mmol per liter increase significantly increases the risk of pancreas inflammation, and the risk is nine times higher with blood fat levels at 5-10 mmol per liter. “It’s far more serious than we previously believed it to be. Risk factors should therefore include a mild to moderate increase in blood fats, i.e. if a patient suddenly suffers from severe stomach pains, which is a symptom related to acute pancreatitis, we should measure the patient’s blood fats,” says Børge Nordestgaard from the University of Copenhagen and Herlev and Gentofte Hospital. The need for more knowledge Pancreatitis is a common disease. It affects 2,000 to 3,000 people in Denmark annually and the number is rising. The inflammation typically occurs when cells in the pancreas discharge digestive enzymes, which then start to demolish the pancreas and damage the surrounding tissue. “Until now, medical science has focused primarily on high blood cholesterol, but our study shows that we should also pay attention to more common fats. Mild to moderate levels of blood fats cause a lot more diseases than we have hitherto been aware of and we need much more research on this area. I know that currently studies are undertaken that investigate whether lowering the levels of blood fats also lowers the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. I eagerly await the answer, because we need more knowledge,” says Nordestgaard.


News Article | December 22, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Weight loss has a significant and prolonged positive impact on psoriasis symptoms and quality of life. The findings stem from a study conducted by Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, in collaboration with the University of Copenhagen's Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports and other participants. The results are published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, an internationally renowned scientific journal. Sixty test-subjects, obese and affected by psoriasis, lost an average of fifteen kilos over a sixteen-week period while improving their quality of life and reducing the severity of their psoriasis. Upon follow up, one year later, the subjects remained ten kilos below their starting weights, and improvements in their psoriasis symptoms and quality of life were maintained. "150,000 Danes suffer from varying degrees of psoriasis," explains the study's project manager, Professor and Senior Physician Lone Skov, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University of Copenhagen. We know that there is a connection between being overweight and psoriasis; being more overweight makes the disease worse. Skov is supported by article co-author, Professor Arne Astrup, of the University of Copenhagen's Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports: "We know that both psoriasis and obesity are linked with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. If we could get obese psoriasis patients to lose weight and keep the weight off, we could potentially derive positive effects on their overall health and quality of life as well." A study conducted in 2012 lead to obese test subjects with psoriasis losing between 10-15% of their starting weights. The study demonstrated that there was a tendency for weight loss to reduce the severity of psoriasis among the subjects. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated that weight loss lead to a significantly better quality of life - with a lasting effect. "When we revisited test subjects one year later, they had only regained five kilos. Thus, they remained ten kilos beneath their starting weights. This was impressive in and of itself, but it was even more positive that they had maintained the effects of their initial weight loss with regards to the diminished severity of their psoriasis and quality of life," explains Dr. Peter Jensen, senior resident, ph.d. at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen. Professor Arne Astrup points to the relevance of the results for psoriasis treatment: "The results underscore the importance of focusing on weight loss as one element in a broad spectrum approach to effective psoriasis treatment for overweight patients. A by-product of weight loss might be a reduction of the complications associated with obesity. This results in a significant effect on the overall well-being of patients." The study was a collaboration between the Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Department of Cardiology at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen; Musculoskeletal Statistics Unit, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg Hospital and the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports at the University of Copenhagen; and the Nutrition Unit at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen. The study results are published in the article, 'Long-term effects of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in a cohort derived from a randomized trial: a prospective observational follow-up study', found in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Psoriasis is a hereditary and chronic skin disease that affects roughly 150,000 Danes. The disease is characterized by the presence of red, itchy and scaly patches of abnormal skin. The severity varies greatly from person to person.


News Article | December 22, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Weight loss has a significant and prolonged positive impact on psoriasis symptoms and quality of life. These findings stem from a study conducted by Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, in collaboration with the University of Copenhagen’s Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports and other participants. The results are published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Sixty test subjects, obese and affected by psoriasis, lost an average of fifteen kilos over a 16-week period while improving their quality of life and reducing the severity of their psoriasis. Upon follow up, one year later, the subjects remained 10 kilos below their starting weights, and improvements in their psoriasis symptoms and quality of life were maintained. "150,000 Danes suffer from varying degrees of psoriasis," explains the study’s project manager, Professor and Senior Physician Lone Skov of Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen. We know that there is a connection between being overweight and psoriasis; being more overweight makes the disease worse. Skov is supported by article co-author, Professor Arne Astrup, who said, "We know that both psoriasis and obesity are linked with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. If we could get obese psoriasis patients to lose weight and keep the weight off, we could potentially derive positive effects on their overall health and quality of life as well." A study conducted in 2012 lead to obese test subjects with psoriasis losing between 10 to 15 percent of their starting weights. The study demonstrated that there was a tendency for weight loss to reduce the severity of psoriasis among the subjects. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated that weight loss lead to a significantly better quality of life - with a lasting effect. "When we revisited test subjects one year later, they had only regained five kilos. Thus, they remained ten kilos beneath their starting weights. This was impressive in and of itself, but it was even more positive that they had maintained the effects of their initial weight loss with regards to the diminished severity of their psoriasis and quality of life," explains Peter Jensen, Senior Resident at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen. "The results underscore the importance of focusing on weight loss as one element in a broad spectrum approach to effective psoriasis treatment for overweight patients. A by-product of weight loss might be a reduction of the complications associated with obesity. This results in a significant effect on the overall well-being of patients," Astrup concluded.


Pociot F.,Herlev and Gentofte Hospital | Lernmark A.,Skåne University Hospital
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at the end of a prodrome of β-cell autoimmunity. The disease is most likely triggered at an early age by autoantibodies primarily directed against insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, or both, but rarely against islet antigen-2. After the initial appearance of one of these autoantibody biomarkers, a second, third, or fourth autoantibody against either islet antigen-2 or the ZnT8 transporter might also appear. The larger the number of β-cell autoantibody types, the greater the risk of rapid progression to clinical onset of diabetes. This association does not necessarily mean that the β-cell autoantibodies are pathogenic, but rather that they represent reproducible biomarkers of the pathogenesis. The primary risk factor for β-cell autoimmunity is genetic, mainly occurring in individuals with either HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, or both, but a trigger from the environment is generally needed. The pathogenesis can be divided into three stages: 1, appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, normoglycaemia, and no symptoms; 2, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and no symptoms; and 3, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and symptoms of diabetes. The genetic association with each one of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


News Article | April 15, 2016
Site: news.yahoo.com

The effects of psoriasis go far deeper than the skin: The condition may raise a person's risk of a potentially deadly aneurysm, a new study from Denmark finds. People in the study who had psoriasis — an inflammatory skin condition that causes red, scaly patches of skin — also had a greater risk of having an abdominal aortic aneurysm, according to the study, published today (April 14) in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a relatively rare condition that occurs when the aorta, the large blood vessel that carries blood to the abdomen, becomes enlarged. If the enlarged aorta ruptures, it can be deadly, and there are often no symptoms of the aneurysm before a rupture occurs. The researchers found that as the severity of a person's psoriasis increased, so did the person's risk for an abdominal aortic aneurysm. [Heart Disease: Types, Prevention & Treatments] In the study, the researchers looked at nearly 60,000 people with mild psoriasis and more than 11,000 people with severe psoriasis. The researchers compared the risk of an aneurysm in each of these groups with the risk of having one among the 5.4 million people in the general population of Denmark, according to the study. Over a 14-year study period, 50 people with severe psoriasis, and 240 people with the mild form of the condition, developed an aneurysm. When the researchers took into account other factors that can affect people's risk of an aneurysm, such as their age and smoking history, they found that people with severe psoriasis had a 67 percent greater risk of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared with the control group. People with mild psoriasis were also found to have an elevated risk: They were 20 percent more likely to develop the condition compared with the control group. This is not the first study to suggest that psoriasis may be linked to cardiovascular health. Psoriasis results from inflammation in the skin, and a 2015 study found that the skin condition was linked to the amount of inflammation in a person's blood vessels, which increases a person's risk for heart disease. In the new study, the researchers noted that inflammation in the aorta is necessary for the development of an aneurysm. Indeed, "psoriasis must be considered as a systemic inflammatory disease rather than an isolated skin disease," Dr. Usman Khalid, a cardiology researcher at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital in Denmark and the lead author of the study, said in a statement.  [4 Common Skin Woes, and How to Fix Them] Because of this, patients with psoriasis should be more aware of their possible risk of cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, Khalid said. More research is needed, however, to determine if patients with psoriasis should undergo additional screenings for aneurysms, he said. In addition, further research is required to determine if treating psoriasis with anti-inflammatory drugs may also reduce the risk of aneurysms, he said. Currently, there is no cure for psoriasis, but certain drugs can help patients manage their symptoms. Copyright 2016 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New research from the University of Copenhagen shows that mild to moderate levels of blood fats equals an increased risk developing acute pancreatitis. It is far more serious than we previously believed it to be, according to the professor behind the study. Pancreatitis is very painful and it may lead to fatalities. Until now, medical science has connected the risk of developing this illness to gallstone, a high intake of alcohol and very high concentrations of blood fats. However, new research reveals that even mildly increased levels of blood fats is a risk factor. The latest study has involved more than 115,000 participants from Denmark, and the results have just been published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Internal Medicine. "We were surprised by the results, which show that even a mild to moderate rise in blood fats increases the risk of developing acute pancreatitis. In fact, it turns out that the risk of developing pancreatitis is far greater than the risk of developing say, cardiovascular diseases," says medical student Simon Bo Pedersen from the University of Copenhagen and Herlev and Gentofte Hospital. Far more serious than it was previously believed to be Normal levels of blood fats would typically be 0-2 mmol per litre, while 2-10 is classified as a mild to moderate increase. If blood fat levels rise above 10 mmol per litre, it is considered a very high increase and previously, this was considered the risk factor to look for in relation to pancreatitis. However, this latest study shows that even a 2 mmol per litre increase significantly increases the risk of pancreas inflammation, and the risk is nine times higher with blood fat levels at 5-10 mmol per litre. "It's far more serious than we previously believed it to be. Risk factors should therefore include a mild to moderate increase in blood fats, i.e. if a patient suddenly suffers e.g. severe stomach pains, which is a symptom related to acute pancreatitis, we should measure the patient's blood fats," says Professor Børge Nordestgaard from the University of Copenhagen and Herlev and Gentofte Hospital. The need for more knowledge Pancreatitis is a common disease. It affects 2-3,000 people in Denmark annually and the number is rising. The inflammation typically occurs when cells in the pancreas discharge digestive enzymes, which then start to demolish the pancreas and damage the surrounding tissue. "Until now, medical science has focused primarily on high blood cholesterol, but our study shows that we should also pay attention to more common fats. Mild to moderate levels of blood fats cause a lot more diseases than we have hitherto been aware of and we need much more research on this area. I know that currently studies are undertaken that investigate whether lowering the levels of blood fats also lowers the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. I eagerly await the answer, because we need more knowledge," says Børge Nordestgaard.


Pociot F.,Herlev and Gentofte Hospital | Pociot F.,Copenhagen University | Kaur S.,Herlev and Gentofte Hospital | Nielsen L.B.,Herlev and Gentofte Hospital
Pediatric Diabetes | Year: 2016

Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a complex disease, arising through the interaction of an incompletely defined combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. It is well accepted that T1DM results from selective immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β cells in the islets of langerhans. Genetic studies of T1DM have identified several regions of susceptibility and identified major networks and pathways contributing to risk. In this study, we have taken advantages of the Immunochip fine-mapping genotyping data to address different aspects of immune regulation in relation to T1DM. First, we confirm that dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of the major histocompatibility complex/human leukocyte antigen (MHC/HLA) region capture the complex genetic contribution of this region to disease risk. Furthermore, it is shown that Immunochip genotyping can translate into a limited number of DRB1 and DQB1 amino acid residues that account for most of the HLA-risk. Second, we use the Immunochip data to look for functional significance by correlation to circulating levels of chemokines and demonstrate that genetic variation at chromosome 2, 3, and 6 correlates with circulating CCL2 and CCL4 in recent onset T1DM patients. Finally, we report that genetic variants predict autoantibody positivity in T1DM cases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd


Egeberg A.,Herlev and Gentofte Hospital
Danish Medical Journal | Year: 2016

Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease whose exact etiology is not fully understood, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the onset and progression of the disease. At the skin level, psoriasis is characterized by localized or widespread thick raised silvery-white scaling and pruritic plaques and studies have shown that psoriasis negatively affects patients’ quality of life, and depression occurs more often in patients with psoriasis. However, data have shown that psoriasis is a systemic disease which affects the joints, vasculature, and other tissues as well. Indeed, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis, and patients with severe psoriasis have a shortened life expectancy. Although our knowledge of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has advanced significantly in the past decade, as have the pharmacological treatment options which are now available, several important knowledge gaps re-main. Many of the proinflammatory mediators involved in psoriasis have also been implicated in some central nervous system (CNS) diseases. However, studies on associations between psoriasis and CNS diseases are scarce. Based on nationwide registry data from the entire Danish population, the present thesis examined the as-sociations between psoriasis and certain CNS diseases. The specific objectives of this work were to investigate the independent impact of depression on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with psoriasis, the relationship between psoriasis and uveitis, and the risk of incident multiple sclerosis (MS) following the onset of psoriasis, respectively. The main results were a significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and CV death in patients with psoriasis during stages of acute depression. Moreover, we found a bidirectional relationship between psoriasis and uveitis, where the occurrence of either disease significantly increased the risk of the other. Perhaps most notably, however, was that we found a psoriasis severity dependent increased risk of MS. In conclusion, psoriasis was significantly associated with certain CNS diseases, and the risk of CVD was strongly associated with acute depression in these patients. These novel findings suggest an important link between psoriasis and CNS diseases, and high-light the necessity for a holistic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with psoriasis. © 2016, Danish Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Floyel T.,Herlev and Gentofte Hospital | Kaur S.,Herlev and Gentofte Hospital | Pociot F.,Herlev and Gentofte Hospital
Current Diabetes Reports | Year: 2015

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease resulting from an immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Several environmental and genetic risk factors predispose to the disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified around 50 genetic regions that affect the risk of developing T1D, but the disease-causing variants and genes are still largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes with focus on the β cell. At least 40 % of the genes in the T1D susceptibility loci are expressed in human islets and β cells, where they according to recent studies modulate the β-cell response to the immune system. As most of the risk variants map to noncoding regions of the genome, i.e., promoters, enhancers, intergenic regions, and noncoding genes, their possible involvement in T1D pathogenesis as gene regulators will also be addressed. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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