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Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Heriot-Watt University is a public university based in Edinburgh, established in 1821 as the world's first mechanics' institute. It has been a university by Royal Charter since 1966. It has branch campuses in the Scottish Borders, Orkney, Dubai, and Putrajaya in Malaysia. Wikipedia.


Dalibard J.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Gerbier F.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Juzeliunas G.,Vilnius University | Ohberg P.,Heriot - Watt University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

When a neutral atom moves in a properly designed laser field, its center-of-mass motion may mimic the dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field, with the emergence of a Lorentz-like force. In this Colloquium the physical principles at the basis of this artificial (synthetic) magnetism are presented. The corresponding Aharonov-Bohm phase is related to the Berry's phase that emerges when the atom adiabatically follows one of the dressed states of the atom-laser interaction. Some manifestations of artificial magnetism for a cold quantum gas, in particular, in terms of vortex nucleation are discussed. The analysis is then generalized to the simulation of non-Abelian gauge potentials and some striking consequences are presented, such as the emergence of an effective spin-orbit coupling. Both the cases of bulk gases and discrete systems, where atoms are trapped in an optical lattice, are addressed. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Morel O.J.X.,Xennia Technology Ltd. | Christie R.M.,Heriot - Watt University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

Hair is commonly colored with synthetic dyes to enhance its appearance or as a fashion statement. The chemistry of permanent hair dyeing technology is based on a 150-year-old observation by Hofmann that p-phenylenediamine produces brown shades on a variety of substrates when exposed to oxidizing agents, including air. The pH of choice for hair dyeing is generally in the range 9-10. At alkaline pH, significant swelling is observed, most likely primarily due to ionization of diacidic amino acid residues. The number of new dye precursors patented over the years, and examples of recent commercial success such as the diamino-N,Ndihydrazopyrazolones, suggest that the oxidative process in an optimized form will remain the dominant technology into the foreseeable future. The rapidly The rapidly developing science of genetics and an emerging understanding of the molecular basis of hair pigmentation may be key elements in the development of systems encouraging natural, biotechnological, or semisynthetic hair repigmentation.


Nepal R.,Heriot - Watt University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Increasing the share of renewable energy in the national energy mix remains one of the major energy policy goals across many economies. This paper assesses the roles and potentials of renewable energy sources in less-developed economies while citing Nepal as an example. Renewable energy has a significant role to play in the electrification of rural areas in developing economies and contribute towards sustainable development. Realizing full potentials of renewable, however, requires addressing both the associated demand-side and supply-side constraints. Innovative subsidies and tax incentives, adequate entrepreneurial support, strengthening institutional arrangement and promoting local community-based organizations such as the cooperatives are the necessary factors in promoting the green technologies in countries like Nepal. International factors such as large scale investment and adequate technology transfer are equally crucial to create a rapid spread and increase affordability of decentralized renewable energy technologies in less-developed economies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Austin B.,Heriot - Watt University
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2010

Vibrios are Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria that are widespread in the coastal and estuarine environments. Some species, e.g. Vibrio anguillarum and V. tapetis, comprise serious pathogens of aquatic vertebrates or invertebrates. Other groups, including Grimontia (=Vibrio) hollisae, Photobacterium (=Vibrio) damselae subsp. damselae, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi (=V. carchariae), V. cholerae, V. fluvialis, V. furnissii, V. metschnikovii, V. mimicus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, may cause disease in both aquatic animals and humans. The human outbreaks, although low in number, typically involve wound infections and gastro-intestinal disease often with watery diarrhoea. In a minority of cases, for example V. vulnificus, there is good evidence to actually associate human infections with diseased animals. In other cases, the link is certainly feasible but hard evidence is mostly lacking. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lee A.-L.,Heriot - Watt University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

The heat is on: A new [3+2] cycloaddition/cycloreversion strategy allows for catalytic and thermally allowed carbonyl-olefin metathesis (see scheme). This strategy opens opportunities for new developments in the field of carbonyl-olefin metathesis, which traditionally relied on stoichiometric amounts of transition-metal reagents or photochemical promotion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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