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Gili V.,National University of the South | Pardo V.G.,National University of the South | Ronda A.C.,National University of the South | De Genaro P.,National University of the South | And 3 more authors.
Steroids | Year: 2016

The presence of glycoside derivatives of 1α,25(OH)2D3 endows plants to gradual release of the free bioactive form of 1α,25(OH)2D3 from its glycoconjugates by endogenous animal tissue glycosidases. This results in increased half-life of the hormone in blood when purified plant fractions are administered for therapeutic purposes. In this work, we evaluated the role 1α,25(OH)2D3-glycosides enriched natural product (Solbone A) from Solanum glaucophyllum leaf extract compared with synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 on myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. For these, differentiation markers and myogenic parameters were studied in C2C12 myoblasts. Results showed that Solbone A, likewise the synthetic hormone, increased creatine kinase activity at day 2 after differentiation induction (60%, p <0.05). Solbone A and synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased vitamin D3 receptor protein expression at 10nM (50% and 30%, respectively) and the transcription factor myogenin (80%, p <0.05). However, tropomyosin expression was not affected by both compounds. In addition, myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein expression was increased 30% at day 2 of differentiation. Solbone A or synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 had no effects on myogenin nor MHC cell localization. Cellular mass increased with myogenesis progression, being Solbone A more effective than synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3. Finally, Solbone A, as well as synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3, augmented the index fusion of cultured muscle fibers. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that Solbone A exhibit at least equal or greater effects on early myoblast differentiation as synthetic hormone, suggesting that plant glycosides could be an effective, accessible and cheaper substitute for synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 to promote muscle growth. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Mathis G.A.,Appletree AG | Toggenburger A.,Appletree AG | Pokorny R.,Covance | Autzen S.,Herbonis AG | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

A natural form of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH) 2D3), the active metabolite of vitamin D, was identified in glycosylated form in Solanum glaucophyllum (SG). Solbone P, an extract of SG with high and homogenous content of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D 3, was chemically characterized and produced under GMP conditions. Three different doses of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 were given as single oral dose to 16 healthy volunteers in a first-in-man trial. The oral pharmacokinetic properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 of SG origin were established and the subjects were monitored until day 28 for safety reasons. This included regular monitoring of vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) data, calcium, phosphate and creatinine values. Subjects were exposed to up to the equivalent of a 40-fold level of the recommended human daily dose for synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.5 μg/subject/day) without experiencing any untoward effects. When compared with the historically established pharmacokinetics profile of synthetic 1,25(OH)2D 3, glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin exhibited delayed absorption characteristics. The phenomenon is species independent, as similar pharmacokinetic patterns were observed in rats and chickens. This modified release pattern may be attributed to the glycosylation of herbal 1,25(OH)2D3 because de-glycosylation by ubiquitous intestinal enzymes prior to intestinal uptake of the unmodified 1,25(OH)2D3 is the rate-limiting step. The major relevance of this finding is that the human pharmacokinetic profile of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin is reminiscent of a delayed release formulation of free 1,25(OH)2D3, resulting in a wider therapeutic window, a potentially longer therapeutic effectiveness, and thus, a better pharmacologic tolerance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Appletree CI Group AG, Herbonis AG and National University of the South
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde | Year: 2016

The safety of supplementing broiler feed with a standardised herbal extract, Solanum Glaucophyllum Standardised Leaves (SGSL) containing glycosylated 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and standardised to contain 10 g/g 1,25(OH)2D3 equivalent, was examined in two studies. In a first study, we examined the potential of SGSL to substitute vitamin D3 (VD3) and the tolerated dose range of SGSL when applied without concomitant VD3 by analyzing performance and blood chemical parameters after 14, 25 and 38 days on diets containing two doses of SGSL (1 and 10 g/kg feed) as source of 1,25(OH)2D3. In the second study, the no adverse effect level of SGSL was determined by analyzing the same parameters after 35 days on diets containing basic VD3 supply and in addition 0.2, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g of SGSL/kg feed. We showed that SGSL was able to substitute VD3 in broilers as far as the performance parameters were concerned. Also, we found that the no adverse effect level is at least 4 g SGSL/kg feed when used with moderate doses of VD3. This is 20 times higher than the upper limit of the commercially recommended dose. We concluded that SGSL is a safe feed additive to use in broiler chicken.


PubMed | Appletree AG, Covance, Prolytik GmbH and Herbonis AG
Type: | Journal: The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology | Year: 2014

A natural form of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active metabolite of vitamin D, was identified in glycosylated form in Solanum glaucophyllum (SG). Solbone P, an extract of SG with high and homogenous content of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3, was chemically characterized and produced under GMP conditions. Three different doses of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 were given as single oral dose to 16 healthy volunteers in a first-in-man trial. The oral pharmacokinetic properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 of SG origin were established and the subjects were monitored until day 28 for safety reasons. This included regular monitoring of vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) data, calcium, phosphate and creatinine values. Subjects were exposed to up to the equivalent of a 40-fold level of the recommended human daily dose for synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.5g/subject/day) without experiencing any untoward effects. When compared with the historically established pharmacokinetics profile of synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3, glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin exhibited delayed absorption characteristics. The phenomenon is species independent, as similar pharmacokinetic patterns were observed in rats and chickens. This modified release pattern may be attributed to the glycosylation of herbal 1,25(OH)2D3 because de-glycosylation by ubiquitous intestinal enzymes prior to intestinal uptake of the unmodified 1,25(OH)2D3 is the rate-limiting step. The major relevance of this finding is that the human pharmacokinetic profile of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin is reminiscent of a delayed release formulation of free 1,25(OH)2D3, resulting in a wider therapeutic window, a potentially longer therapeutic effectiveness, and thus, a better pharmacologic tolerance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 16th Vitamin D Workshop.


The presence of glycoside derivatives of 1,25(OH)2D3 endows plants to gradual release of the free bioactive form of 1,25(OH)2D3 from its glycoconjugates by endogenous animal tissue glycosidases. This results in increased half-life of the hormone in blood when purified plant fractions are administered for therapeutic purposes. In this work, we evaluated the role 1,25(OH)2D3-glycosides enriched natural product (Solbone A) from Solanum glaucophyllum leaf extract compared with synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 on myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. For these, differentiation markers and myogenic parameters were studied in C2C12 myoblasts. Results showed that Solbone A, likewise the synthetic hormone, increased creatine kinase activity at day 2 after differentiation induction (60%, p<0.05). Solbone A and synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 increased vitamin D3 receptor protein expression at 10nM (50% and 30%, respectively) and the transcription factor myogenin (80%, p<0.05). However, tropomyosin expression was not affected by both compounds. In addition, myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein expression was increased 30% at day 2 of differentiation. Solbone A or synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 had no effects on myogenin nor MHC cell localization. Cellular mass increased with myogenesis progression, being Solbone A more effective than synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3. Finally, Solbone A, as well as synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3, augmented the index fusion of cultured muscle fibers. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that Solbone A exhibit at least equal or greater effects on early myoblast differentiation as synthetic hormone, suggesting that plant glycosides could be an effective, accessible and cheaper substitute for synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 to promote muscle growth.


Bachmann H.,Herbonis AG | Offord-Cavin E.,Nestlé | Phothirath P.,Nestlé | Horcajada M.-N.,Nestlé | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Vitamin D requires two metabolic steps to become biologically active. In a first step 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is formed, which acts as storage form. After a tightly controlled step in kidney the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is formed. Because kidney is the relevant metabolic organ for this conversion, 1,25(OH)2D3 needs to be supplemented in patients with kidney malfunction or kidney failure. Synthetic 1,25(OH)2D 3 (calcitriol) has been available as a drug for decades. Due to its high potency and its kinetic profile (fast absorption and rapid elimination) its therapeutic windows has proven to be relatively narrow. A natural form of the active metabolite was identified in a few plants, such as Solanum glaucophyllum (SG) and suggested as alternative for animal and human health. An extract of a SG variety bred for high and uniform level of glycosylated 1,25(OH) 2D3 was chemically characterized. Among the typical pharmaceutically inactive plant components (carbohydrates 54.3%, protein 24.9%, minerals 17.1% and water 4.1%) high levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and a unique flavonoid content was found (1.11 mg total quercetin/g extract) consisting exclusively of the quercetin glycosides hyperoside, isoquercetin, rutin and apinosylrutin. The molecular distribution of glycosyl moieties in 1,25(OH)2D3 extracted from SG as determined by gel permeation chromatography was found to be 1-10 hexose units per aglycone. 1,25(OH)2D3-1-α-glucopyranoside was identified in the SG extract, while a di-and triglycoside have been identified in SG by other groups. The pharmacokinetic properties of synthetic 1,25(OH)2D 3 and glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 extracted from SG were compared in male rats. When compared to synthetic 1,25(OH) 2D3, SG-derived 1,25(OH)2D3 exhibited delayed absorption and elimination characteristics, resulting in delayed Tmax (6-12 h vs. 1 h) and increased T1/2 (approximately 30 h vs. 23 h). This putative modified release pattern may be attributed to the glycosylation of herbal 1,25(OH)2D3 because de-glycosylation by ubiquitous intestinal enzymes prior to intestinal uptake of the aglycone appears to be the rate limiting step. In effect, 1,25(OH) 2D3 of herbal origin behaves like a precursor of calcitriol, resulting in a wider therapeutic window and thus better pharmacological tolerance. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


The present invention provides a pharmaceutical and/or veterinary composition comprising a retard release formulation of a Solarium glaucophyllum preparation. The composition further preferably comprises a calcium source. The composition of the invention is suitable to prevent and/or treat hypocalcaemia. Furthermore, the composition is suitable to prevent milk fever in cows. Advantageously, the composition is administered only once before calving so as to prevent the occurrence of mil fever in cows.


The present invention provides a pharmaceutical and/or veterinary composition comprising a retard release formulation of a Solarium glaucophyllum preparation. The composition further preferably comprises a calcium source. The composition of the invention is suitable to prevent and/or treat hypocalcaemia. Furthermore, the composition is suitable to prevent milk fever in cows. Advantageously, the composition is administered only once before calving so as to prevent the occurrence of milk fever in cows.


A method is provided for preventing or treating bone or musculoskeletal metabolism disorders or kidney malfunction in humans. It comprises providing to a subject in need of that a calcium containing or calcium enriched diet combined with the administration of an efficient amount of a plant extract of Solatium glaucophyllum comprising from about 0.8 to about 2.2 weight % of a mixture of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 glycosides and quercetin glycosides present in a ratio of about 1:100 to 1:200 parts by weight. There are also provided food or dietary composition and food supplement designed for preventing or treating bone or musculoskeletal metabolism disorders or kidney malfunction in humans which comprises an efficient amount of the said plant extract of Solanum glaucophyllum and a source of calcium.


PubMed | Herbonis AG
Type: | Journal: The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology | Year: 2013

Vitamin D requires two metabolic steps to become biologically active. In a first step 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is formed, which acts as storage form. After a tightly controlled step in kidney the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is formed. Because kidney is the relevant metabolic organ for this conversion, 1,25(OH)2D3 needs to be supplemented in patients with kidney malfunction or kidney failure. Synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol) has been available as a drug for decades. Due to its high potency and its kinetic profile (fast absorption and rapid elimination) its therapeutic windows has proven to be relatively narrow. A natural form of the active metabolite was identified in a few plants, such as Solanum glaucophyllum (SG) and suggested as alternative for animal and human health. An extract of a SG variety bred for high and uniform level of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 was chemically characterized. Among the typical pharmaceutically inactive plant components (carbohydrates 54.3%, protein 24.9%, minerals 17.1% and water 4.1%) high levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and a unique flavonoid content was found (1.11mg total quercetin/g extract) consisting exclusively of the quercetin glycosides hyperoside, isoquercetin, rutin and apinosylrutin. The molecular distribution of glycosyl moieties in 1,25(OH)2D3 extracted from SG as determined by gel permeation chromatography was found to be 1-10 hexose units per aglycone. 1,25(OH)2D3-1--glucopyranoside was identified in the SG extract, while a di- and triglycoside have been identified in SG by other groups. The pharmacokinetic properties of synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 and glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 extracted from SG were compared in male rats. When compared to synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3, SG-derived 1,25(OH)2D3 exhibited delayed absorption and elimination characteristics, resulting in delayed Tmax (6-12h vs. 1h) and increased T (approximately 30h vs. 23h). This putative modified release pattern may be attributed to the glycosylation of herbal 1,25(OH)2D3 because de-glycosylation by ubiquitous intestinal enzymes prior to intestinal uptake of the aglycone appears to be the rate limiting step. In effect, 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin behaves like a precursor of calcitriol, resulting in a wider therapeutic window and thus better pharmacological tolerance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Vitamin D Workshop..

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