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McTaggart A.R.,University of Pretoria | McTaggart A.R.,Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center | Shivas R.G.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | Boekhout T.,CBS KNAW Fungal Biodiversity CBS KNAW | And 5 more authors.
IMA Fungus | Year: 2016

Ustilago is a polyphyletic genus of smut fungi found mainly on Poaceae. The development of a taxonomy that reflects phylogeny requires subdivision of Ustilago into smaller monophyletic genera. Several separate systematic analyses have determined that Macalpinomyces mackinlayi, M. tubiformis, Tolyposporella pachycarpa, Ustilago bouriquetii and U. maydis, occupy a unique phylogenetic position within the Ustilaginaceae. A previously introduced monotypic generic name typified by U. maydis, Mycosarcoma, is available to accommodate these species, which resolves one component of polyphyly for Ustilago s. lat. in Ustilaginaceae. An emended description of Mycosarcoma is provided to reflect the morphological synapomorphies of this monophyletic group. A specimen of Ustilago maydis that has had its genome sequenced is designated as a neotype for this species. Taxonomic stability will further be provided by a forthcoming proposal to conserve the name Uredo maydis over Lycoperdon zeae, which has priority by date, in order to preserve the well-known epithet maydis. © 2016 International Mycological Association.


Crous P.W.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Summerell B.A.,Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust | Shivas R.G.,Plant Biosecurity Science | Burgess T.I.,Murdoch University | And 22 more authors.
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2012

Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Phytophthora amnicola from still water, Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi from Castanea sp., Pseudoplagiostoma corymbiae from Corymbia sp., Diaporthe eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus sp., Sporisorium andrewmitchellii from Enneapogon aff. lindleyanus, Myrmecridium banksiae from Banksia, and Pilidiella wangiensis from Eucalyptus sp. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Gondwanamyces wingfieldii from Protea caffra, Montagnula aloes from Aloe sp., Diaporthe canthii from Canthium inerne, Phyllosticta ericarum from Erica gracilis, Coleophoma proteae from Protea caffra, Toxicocladosporium strelitziae from Strelitzia reginae, and Devriesia agapanthi from Agapanthus africanus. Other species include Phytophthora asparagi from Asparagus officinalis (USA), and Diaporthe passiflorae from Passiflora edulis (South America). Furthermore, novel genera of coelomycetes include Chrysocrypta corymbiae from Corymbia sp. (Australia), Trinosporium guianense, isolated as a contaminant (French Guiana), and Xenosonderhenia syzygii, from Syzygium cordatum (South Africa). Pseudopenidiella piceae from Picea abies (Czech Republic), and Phaeocercospora colophospermi from Colophospermum mopane (South Africa) represent novel genera of hyphomycetes. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. © 2012 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.


McTaggart A.R.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | McTaggart A.R.,Queensland University of Technology | McTaggart A.R.,University of Queensland | Shivas R.G.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | And 6 more authors.
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2012

The genera Ustilago, Sporisorium and Macalpinomyces are a polyphyletic complex of plant pathogenic fungi. The four main morphological characters used to define these genera have been considered homoplasious and not useful for resolving the complex. This study re-evaluates character homology and discusses the use of these characters for defining monophyletic groups recovered from a reconstructed phylogeny using four nuclear loci. Generic delimitation of smut fungi based on their hosts is also discussed as a means for identifying genera within this group. Morphological characters and host specificity can be used to circumscribe genera within the Ustilago-Sporisorium-Macalpinomyces complex.© 2012 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.


McTaggart A.R.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | McTaggart A.R.,Queensland University of Technology | McTaggart A.R.,University of Queensland | Shivas R.G.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | And 5 more authors.
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2012

Morphological characters within the Ustilago-Sporisorium-Macalpinomyces complex are defined explicitly. The genera Sporisorium and Anthracocystis are emended to reflect morphological synapomorphies. Three new genera, Langdonia, Stollia and Triodiomyces are described based on soral synapomorphies and host classification. The new classification of the Ustilago-Sporisorium-Macalpinomyces complex incorporates 142 new taxonomic combinations. © 2012 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.


McTaggart A.R.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | McTaggart A.R.,Queensland University of Technology | McTaggart A.R.,University of Queensland | Shivas R.G.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | And 5 more authors.
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2012

The fungal genera Ustilago, Sporisorium and Macalpinomyces represent an unresolved complex. Taxa within the complex often possess characters that occur in more than one genus, creating uncertainty for species placement. Previous studies have indicated that the genera cannot be separated based on morphology alone. Here we chronologically review the history of the Ustilago-Sporisorium-Macalpinomyces complex, argue for its resolution and suggest methods to accomplish a stable taxonomy. A combined molecular and morphological approach is required to identify synapomorphic characters that underpin a new classification. Ustilago, Sporisorium and Macalpinomyces require explicit re-description and new genera, based on monophyletic groups, are needed to accommodate taxa that no longer fit the emended descriptions. A resolved classification will end the taxonomic confusion that surrounds generic placement of these smut fungi. © 2012 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.


Vanky K.,Herbarium Ustilaginales Vanky HUV | Lutz M.,University of Tübingen
Polish Botanical Journal | Year: 2010

Based on molecular phylogenetic analyses and spore morphology, a new smut fungus, Entyloma majewskii Vanky & M. Lutz, is described and illustrated, collected on Ranunculusficaria L. in Iran. It is compared with Entyloma ficariae Thilm. ex A. A. Fisch. Waldh.,also on R. ficaria. A key to Entyloma de Bary species on Ranunculus L. is given.


Lutz M.,University of Tübingen | Vanky K.,Herbarium Ustilaginales Vanky HUV | Bauer R.,University of Tübingen
Mycological Progress | Year: 2012

A smut fungus, Melanotaenium oxalidis, forming dark-coloured spores in the leaves of Oxalis oregana (Oxalidaceae) was collected a few times in the USA. A similar smut fungus on Oxalis acetosella was recently collected in Slovenia. Teliospores, hyphal septations, cellular interactions and ITS and LSU rDNA sequences of these two smuts on Oxalis were examined and the results obtained were compared with each other and with findings in other members of the Ustilaginomycotina. The data show that the specimen from Slovenia is very close to Melanotaenium oxalidis, but represents a new species, and that the two Melanotaenium species occurring on Oxalis are members of the Urocystidaceae. Among the Urocystidaceae, they are morphologically very similar to Flamingomyces, Melanustilospora and Vankya species, but differ from them, and from all other Urocystidaceae, by their multilamellate teliospore walls. In addition, molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated good separation of the Melanotaenium species from Flamingomyces, Melanustilospora and Vankya. Accordingly, a new genus, Melanoxa, and a new species, M. oxalidiellae, are described, and a new combination, Melanoxa oxalidis, is proposed for Melanotaenium oxalidis. © 2011 German Mycological Society and Springer.

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