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van Zyl H.,HEINEKEN | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

This paper is an update on a study investigating the effect of culture and language on reported emotions and confirms that both culture and language are important in studying emotions evoked by beverages. In addition, sub-categories of products, such as beverage types have different emotion associations in different cultures. A list of emotions developed for beverages in the UK, US, Mexico and Spain was translated into Portuguese for Brazil and Portugal. An on-line questionnaire combining the emotions selected by the focus groups was then completed by 600 respondents each in Brazil and Portugal where people were asked which emotions applied to their favourite beverage, beer and their least liked alcoholic beverage. Data from the two studies were combined.Respondents from English speaking countries showed very similar emotional reactions for individual beverage types. Respondents from Mexico and Brazil were more similar to English speaking respondents than to those from Spain and, with the exception of wine, respondents from Portugal were similar to those of Brazil and Mexico in their emotional reactions. Respondents from Spain and Portugal were similar in their emotional reaction to wine. We confirm our conclusion that for products, but certainly for beverages, culture will affect emotion language usage, but even within the same category, the pattern of differences may be different for different products. In designing emotion lists it is therefore important to take both culture and language into consideration and to realize that a list developed in one country for a specific product type is not necessarily suitable in another country or for a different product. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


van Zyl H.,HEINEKEN | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

This study investigated the effect of culture and language on reported emotions. Cross cultural studies of language need to look both between different languages and within the same language as spoken in different countries. Starting with a list of emotions in English, translation resulted in different lists for Spain and Mexico due to differences in the use of Spanish. Spanish lists were somewhat longer than the English list, as one English word could result in two Spanish words with similar meanings. A qualitative study was conducted in multiple locations in the UK, US, Mexico and Spain to identify which emotions were relevant to beverages.An on-line questionnaire combining the emotions selected by the focus groups was then completed by 600 respondents in four English speaking countries (US, UK, Australia, New Zealand) and two Spanish speaking countries (Spain, Mexico) where people were asked which emotions applied to their favourite beverage, beer and their least liked alcoholic beverage. There were more similarities among the four English speaking countries than between Spain and Mexico and more similarities between Mexican respondents and English speaking respondents than between Mexican and Spanish respondents. Spanish respondents did not consider certain emotions to be very relevant to their favourite beverage. Respondents from all countries found beverages without alcohol to be different from beverages with alcohol regarding the emotions they evoke. In addition, in English speaking countries positive emotion terms were more discriminating for both favourite and least liked beverages, while in Spanish speaking countries, both positive and negative emotions were more equally discriminating. These results demonstrate that cross cultural differences exist within the same language as well as across languages. Individuals and entire cultures do not all verbally express their emotions in the same manner. Recommendations are presented for producing emotion lists which will work in multiple countries and for conducting cross cultural emotion research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | Carr B.T.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

The EsSense Profile™ methodology, presented in 2008 and published in 2010, incorporates both overall acceptability and emotion measures in the consumer test questionnaire. This method provides a detailed list of emotion attributes that consumers associate with the test products. This list can be expanded or edited to account for specific emotions that may be appropriate in specific product categories and in specific applications. Data collection can use either choose all that apply (CATA) or data scaling (e.g., using a five-point scale). Both approaches provide useful information, however, the scaling approach provides more detail specifically when comparing products with small differences. This method has been used to guide product development efforts similar to that provided by traditional consumer tests, to map a product category, and most importantly, to relate the product to the brand essence, which typically conveys an emotional aspect of the product. The relationship between acceptability and emotions has been evaluated for different products and product categories. A few emotion terms relate to acceptability consistently; however, many of the emotions measured do not relate to acceptability. For example, males associated acceptability with two emotions, satisfied and (-) disgusted, therefore the remaining 37 emotions resulted in new information. Females, on the other hand, associated acceptability with 25 positive emotions, including joyful, good, happy, pleasant and (-) disgusted, leaving 14 emotions to express other attitudes about the products. This demonstrates that emotions provide additional information not explained by overall acceptability, resulting in a method that provides additional new information about the products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Gillette M.,McCormick and Company
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

Neophobia was measured with two large (n=1567 and n=6843) commercial samples of US consumers on a 5-point Food Neophobia Scale. Results were compared with demographic data collected in other samples in the US and in other countries. Gender effects remain unclear; while neophobia appears to increase with age, while decreasing with increasing education and with increasing income. Results are explained by an increased exposure to foods with increasing income and education. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

Emotion attributes have been generally associated with product brands but little work has been published to understand consumer emotions associated with the product itself. The purpose of this series of studies was to develop an emotion-specific questionnaire to test foods with consumers in person or on the internet. A list of emotion terms was screened and validated with consumers. The emotion terms selected for foods were generally positive, as compared with emotion testing originating within a clinical framework. The list of emotions was useful in differentiating between and within categories of foods. Higher overall acceptability scores correlated with higher emotions, but differences in emotion profiles did not always correlate to differences in acceptability. A description of the approach used to develop the questionnaire, questionnaire format, effect of test context, and specific applications of the method to foods are presented. This test represents a major methodological advance in consumer testing of food products in a commercial environment. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Research International | Year: 2015

The field of emotion research related to product development is reviewed, focusing on the issues and challenges of recent years. While the traditional field of emotion in psychology and related fields is quite old, the application to products is more recent, and presents the following list of current issues which are reviewed: (1) Defining emotion, (2) Positive and negative emotions, (3) Large or small numbers of emotions, (4) Method: questionnaire or facial or physiological or behavioral, (5) Method: social media studies, (6) When to test emotions: before, during or after a product, (7) Health and Wellness, and (8) Cross cultural and global perspective: does everyone globally have the same feelings and express them the same way? © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

This paper introduces the conceptualization and measurement of quality of life, well-being, and wellness. Wellness, quality of life and well-being refer to the positive, subjective state that is opposite to illness. Thus, wellness is not the just absence of disease and the absence of illness; it is a separate positive state. Quality of life, well-being, and wellness are often discussed and described in terms of a multidimensional model. The strongest dimensions are physical, social, emotional/psychological, intellectual, and spiritual. The measurement of these positive dimensions of health have produced literally thousands of different measures, but most of them have been developed in a clinical setting and have been applied to specific disease conditions. Many of the existing clinical measures of wellness, well-being, and quality of life are very long, often over 100 items, and not suited to consumer research. Measures of quality of life and of well-being have focused on overall functioning. Quality of life of measures have been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and translated in many languages. Subjective well being has been defined as the combination of positive-negative affect balance and satisfaction with life, and is measured with two standard measures of these attributes. Wellness has largely been measured in the fields of clinical and counseling psychology; one new product oriented measure is the WellSense™ Profile (King et al., 2015). Wellness, well-being, and quality of life can be important additions to the measures studied in consumer perception of food and other consumer products. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Bevelander K.E.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | Anschutz D.J.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Engels R.C.M.E.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Appetite | Year: 2013

The main goal of this study was to test whether exposure to happy, neutral, or sad media content influences social modeling effects of (snack) food intake in young children. The study was conducted at 14 Dutch urban and suburban primary schools. The participants (N=112) were asked to watch a movie with a same-sex normal-weight confederate who was instructed to eat either nothing or a standardized amount of snack food (10 chocolate-coated peanuts). The study involved a 3 (movie clips: happy, neutral, and sad)×2 (peer's food intake: no intake versus a standardized intake) between-participants design. A significant interaction between the movie clip condition and intake condition was found (F2,102=3.30, P=.04, Cohen's f2=.20). Positive as well as negative emotions were found to lead to adjustment to the intake of a peer, as compared to that of children in the neutral movie condition. The findings suggest that children eat more mindlessly when watching an emotional movie and, therefore, respond more automatically to a peer's food intake, whereas children may be less susceptible to a peer's intake while watching a neutral movie. As young children are not in the position to choose their food consumption environment yet, parents and schools should provide consumption settings that limit eating in front of the television. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | Thomas Carr B.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

The study of emotions associated with foods continues to gain momentum within the Sensory Science field. A number of questionnaire methods have been published, but there is a lack of detailed advice on how to use and/or implement these methods. This paper addresses a number of methodological decisions for the EsSense Profile® (King & Meiselman, 2010), a method developed to measure emotions associated with foods, and more generally, on how to measure emotions in a product development context. The results of 28 tests (Central Location Tests (CLT) and Internet Surveys) demonstrate (1) the impact of questionnaire format on hedonic and emotion responses by evaluating the results of eight internet surveys comparing the following: (1a) types of questionnaire (check all that apply versus rating scale), (1b) order of emotions (alphabetical versus random), and (1c) position of emotions with respect to overall acceptability question (before or after acceptability); (2) the difference in response when testing a product name, the aroma of the product or the flavor of the product; (3) the impact of number of samples on emotion responses in a central location test; and (4) the impact of time of day for conducting emotion tests. This paper provides a foundation and best practices for measuring emotions with consumers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

I present eleven predictions of future changes in sensory and consumer research, dividing them according to the criticality of change and the timing of change. The changes which the field must have are more emphasis on: health and wellness, global products and methods, age (life transitions), measuring beyond liking, move beyond the laboratory, and the use of representative subjects. Together these trends will define whether sensory and consumer research successfully moves into the future to predict consumer decisions based on more representative people and places, using more representative measures of consumer behavior, and addressing the most important central topic of our day, health. Health as a main focus of research and application is already here and will continue to grow, as will a more global perspective. Moving beyond the laboratory and using more representative consumers are further ahead of us, and might take ten years to develop. Of less importance than the above topics, but still of importance are topics which we need in the future, but they are not as critical as the must-haves. These methodological predictions include: increased use of internet research, trained and consumer panels, and the greater consideration of ritual and habit. These are probably closer to 10 years away before widespread use. In the mid-term is further growth in the number of people in sensory and consumer tests. I have categorized one future issue as nice to have but neither critical nor imminent. Perhaps in the future we will have less research arguing which scale is best, and more research trying to apply scales in the most appropriate manner. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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