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Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Gillette M.,McCormick and Company
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

Neophobia was measured with two large (n=1567 and n=6843) commercial samples of US consumers on a 5-point Food Neophobia Scale. Results were compared with demographic data collected in other samples in the US and in other countries. Gender effects remain unclear; while neophobia appears to increase with age, while decreasing with increasing education and with increasing income. Results are explained by an increased exposure to foods with increasing income and education. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

Emotion attributes have been generally associated with product brands but little work has been published to understand consumer emotions associated with the product itself. The purpose of this series of studies was to develop an emotion-specific questionnaire to test foods with consumers in person or on the internet. A list of emotion terms was screened and validated with consumers. The emotion terms selected for foods were generally positive, as compared with emotion testing originating within a clinical framework. The list of emotions was useful in differentiating between and within categories of foods. Higher overall acceptability scores correlated with higher emotions, but differences in emotion profiles did not always correlate to differences in acceptability. A description of the approach used to develop the questionnaire, questionnaire format, effect of test context, and specific applications of the method to foods are presented. This test represents a major methodological advance in consumer testing of food products in a commercial environment. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | Carr B.T.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

The EsSense Profile™ methodology, presented in 2008 and published in 2010, incorporates both overall acceptability and emotion measures in the consumer test questionnaire. This method provides a detailed list of emotion attributes that consumers associate with the test products. This list can be expanded or edited to account for specific emotions that may be appropriate in specific product categories and in specific applications. Data collection can use either choose all that apply (CATA) or data scaling (e.g., using a five-point scale). Both approaches provide useful information, however, the scaling approach provides more detail specifically when comparing products with small differences. This method has been used to guide product development efforts similar to that provided by traditional consumer tests, to map a product category, and most importantly, to relate the product to the brand essence, which typically conveys an emotional aspect of the product. The relationship between acceptability and emotions has been evaluated for different products and product categories. A few emotion terms relate to acceptability consistently; however, many of the emotions measured do not relate to acceptability. For example, males associated acceptability with two emotions, satisfied and (-) disgusted, therefore the remaining 37 emotions resulted in new information. Females, on the other hand, associated acceptability with 25 positive emotions, including joyful, good, happy, pleasant and (-) disgusted, leaving 14 emotions to express other attitudes about the products. This demonstrates that emotions provide additional information not explained by overall acceptability, resulting in a method that provides additional new information about the products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Research International | Year: 2015

The field of emotion research related to product development is reviewed, focusing on the issues and challenges of recent years. While the traditional field of emotion in psychology and related fields is quite old, the application to products is more recent, and presents the following list of current issues which are reviewed: (1) Defining emotion, (2) Positive and negative emotions, (3) Large or small numbers of emotions, (4) Method: questionnaire or facial or physiological or behavioral, (5) Method: social media studies, (6) When to test emotions: before, during or after a product, (7) Health and Wellness, and (8) Cross cultural and global perspective: does everyone globally have the same feelings and express them the same way? © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

van Zyl H.,HEINEKEN | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

This study investigated the effect of culture and language on reported emotions. Cross cultural studies of language need to look both between different languages and within the same language as spoken in different countries. Starting with a list of emotions in English, translation resulted in different lists for Spain and Mexico due to differences in the use of Spanish. Spanish lists were somewhat longer than the English list, as one English word could result in two Spanish words with similar meanings. A qualitative study was conducted in multiple locations in the UK, US, Mexico and Spain to identify which emotions were relevant to beverages.An on-line questionnaire combining the emotions selected by the focus groups was then completed by 600 respondents in four English speaking countries (US, UK, Australia, New Zealand) and two Spanish speaking countries (Spain, Mexico) where people were asked which emotions applied to their favourite beverage, beer and their least liked alcoholic beverage. There were more similarities among the four English speaking countries than between Spain and Mexico and more similarities between Mexican respondents and English speaking respondents than between Mexican and Spanish respondents. Spanish respondents did not consider certain emotions to be very relevant to their favourite beverage. Respondents from all countries found beverages without alcohol to be different from beverages with alcohol regarding the emotions they evoke. In addition, in English speaking countries positive emotion terms were more discriminating for both favourite and least liked beverages, while in Spanish speaking countries, both positive and negative emotions were more equally discriminating. These results demonstrate that cross cultural differences exist within the same language as well as across languages. Individuals and entire cultures do not all verbally express their emotions in the same manner. Recommendations are presented for producing emotion lists which will work in multiple countries and for conducting cross cultural emotion research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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