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Suita, Japan

Jang J.W.,Catholic University of Korea | Chun J.-Y.,Research and Development Center | Park Y.M.,Hepatology Center | Shin S.-K.,Research and Development Center | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Science | Year: 2012

This study explored the combined effect of number and pattern of mutations in the X/precore regions of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome, mutational complex genotype (MCG), on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Sequence variations were determined by direct sequencing and multiplex restriction fragment mass polymorphism analysis in 150 age-, sex- and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status-matched patients with and without HCC. In addition, a longitudinal study and an external validation of MCG were conducted. All were HBV subgenotype C2. Eight high-frequency mutations (G1613A, C1653T, T1753V, A1762T, G1764A, A1846T, G1896A and G1899A) were significantly associated with HCC. Whereas C1653T, T1753V, G1764A and A1846T were independent mutational factors for HCC, the significance of these individual mutations was negligible when analyzed with all clinico-virological variables. The total number of mutations was the only independent viral factor for HCC, irrespective of HBeAg status. There was a significant dose-risk relationship between the number of mutations and HCC, in which high risks for HCC were associated with mutation numbers ≥6. Pattern analysis of the mutations revealed disparity in distribution among the top seven high-risk mutation combination patterns, which accounted for 40 and 2.7% of HCC and non-HCC cases, respectively. The predictive accuracy of the high-risk mutations for HCC was similar to that of α-fetoprotein. Longitudinal and external validation studies also supported the association of mutation number with HCC development. MCG in the HBV X/precore regions is a risk indicator for HCC, and might serve as a new guide to the HCC screening scheme for chronic HBV carriers. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association. Source

Okada Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Yamaguchi K.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Nakajima T.,Saiseikai Kyoto Hospital | Nishikawa T.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Liver International | Year: 2013

Background/Aims: Statins, which are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and inhibit endogenous cholesterol synthesis, possess pleiotropic activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antifibrotic effects. Here, we investigated whether statins ameliorate steatohepatitis using a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet-induced rat model. Methods: Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control chow or HFHC diet. Half of the HFHC diet-fed rats were orally administered 2 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin for 12 weeks. Hepatic injury, steatosis, fibrosis and markers of lipid peroxidation/oxidant stress were evaluated. Results: As previously reported, HFHC diet induced steatohepatitis in rat livers with hypercholesterolaemia. Rosuvastatin decreased Oil Red O stained-positive areas, liver/body weight ratio, serum total cholesterol levels and hepatic free fatty acid contents in HFHC diet-fed rats. Further study revealed that rosuvastatin significantly decreased hepatic mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hepatic lobular inflammation grade. Hepatic fibrosis was also ameliorated by rosuvastatin with decreases in hepatic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor and type-1 procollagen. Similarly, hepatic Sirius red stained or α-smooth muscle actin stained-positive areas and expression of markers of lipid peroxidation/oxidant stress [hepatic 8-hydroxy-oxyguanosine and hepatic 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal] were decreased. Interestingly, whereas the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was not affected, that of catalase and acyl-coA oxidase was restored. Conclusions: These data suggest that rosuvastatin improved not only hepatic steatosis but also hepatic injury and fibrosis via improved peroxisomal β-oxidation in this rat HFHC model. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Yokomizo C.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Yamaguchi K.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Itoh Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Nishimura T.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2011

P300 impacts the transcription of several genes involved in biological behavior of human malignancies including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). We found p300 is highly expressed in 47% of surgically resected HCC specimens by immunohistochemistry, which correlated with advanced TNM staging (P= 0.034), vascular invasion (P= 0.036), intrahepatic metastasis (P= 0.001) and shortened overall survival (P= 0.028). In vitro study, knocking down of p300 expression in hepatoma cells recovered E-cadherin expression, inhibited the translocation of beta (β)-catenin into the nuclei, decreased cyclin D1 activity and suppressed the migration/invasion of HCC cells. Furthermore, suppression of p300 led to down-regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules such as Snail, Twist and HIF-1 alpha. These observations suggest that p300 contributes to the EMT-related progression of HCCs. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Combination treatment consisting of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with epirubicin and cisplatin (HAIC-EC) and systemic infusion of low-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are sometimes effective against advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there is no effective treatment for advanced HCCs with arterioportal shunts (APS) or arteriovenous shunts (AVS). We investigated a response and adverse events of a new combination protocol of repeated HAIC-EC and percutaneous intratumoral injection chemotherapy with a mixture of recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and 5-FU (PIC-IF) in patients with far-advanced HCCs with large APSs or AVSs. There was a complete response (CR) for the large vascular shunts in all three patients and for all tumor burdens in two patients. Significant side effects were flu-like symptoms (grade 2) and bone marrow suppression (grade 2 or 3) after each cycle, but these were well-tolerated. These results suggest that the combination of HAIC-EC and PIC-IF is a new and promising approach for advanced HCC accompanied by a large APS or AVS. Source

Park Y.M.,Hepatology Center | Park Y.M.,Biomedical Research Center
World Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

The core promoter and proximal precore regions are the most complex portions of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome. These regions cooperatively regulate viral replication and differentially regulate the synthesis of the viral proteins E, core, and X. Multiple mutations in these regions are associated with the persistency of viral infection and the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In South Korea, nearly all HBVs are classified as HBV genotype C2; the majority of these viruses have the basal core promoter double mutation, a precore stop mutation, or both. These mutations may play a role in the alteration of viral and clinical features, and abundant and complex mutations are particularly prevalent in the core promoter and proximal precore regions. We previously demonstrated that the accumulation of ≥ 6 mutations at eight key nucleotides located in these regions (G1613A, C1653T, T1753V, A1762T, G1764A, A1846T, G1896A, and G1899A) is a useful marker to predict the development of HCC regardless of advanced liver disease. In addition, certain mutation combinations were predominant in cases with ≥ 4 mutations. In cases with ≤ 5 mutations, a low Hepatitis B e antigen titer (< 35 signal to noise ratio) was indicative of HCC risk. Viral mutation data of the single HBV genotype C2 suggest that the combined effect of the number and pattern of mutations in the core promoter and proximal precore regions is helpful in predicting HCC risk. © 2015 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. Source

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