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Ioánnina, Greece

Hyphantis T.,University of Ioannina | Hyphantis T.,University of Manchester | Antoniou K.,University of Ioannina | Tomenson B.,University of Manchester | And 3 more authors.
General Hospital Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with smoking, while ulcerative colitis (UC) is largely a disease of nonsmokers. We aimed to test whether the smoking-linked personality characteristic "impulsive sensation seeking" (ImpSS) is correlated to the differences in smoking in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: In 185 IBD patients, the General Health Questionnaire and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) were administered. The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence was used to assess smokers' nicotine dependence. Results: CD patients were twice as likely to be active smokers than UC patients. CD patients presented higher ImpSS scores than UC patients, but the differences became nonsignificant after adjustment for age, gender, education and psychological distress. Multivariate analyses, however, showed that the relationship of ImpSS with current smoking was stronger in CD patients. Moderator analysis showed that the relationship of ImpSS with nicotine dependence was also greater in smokers with CD than in those with UC. No other ZKPQ subscale was correlated to disease type, current smoking or nicotine dependence. Conclusion: ImpSS is associated with current smoking and nicotine dependence in IBD, and these associations are stronger in CD. These findings might be relevant to more effective interventions aiming at smoking cessation in CD patients. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Kumar M.,National Institute of Nutrition | Kumar R.,National Institute of Nutrition | Hemalatha R.,National Institute of Nutrition | Verma V.,Research and Development Unit | And 6 more authors.
Experimental Diabetes Research | Year: 2012

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface, incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane, deconjugation of bile via bile salt hydrolase, coprecipitation of cholesterol with deconjugated bile, binding action of bile by fibre, and production of short-chain fatty acids by oligosaccharides. The present paper reviews the mechanisms of action of anti-cholesterolemic potential of probiotic microorganisms and probiotic food products, with the aim of lowering the risks of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases. Copyright © 2012 Manoj Kumar et al. Source


Brichler S.,University of Paris 13 | Setshedi M.,University of Cape Town | Renou C.,Hepato Gastroenterology Unit
Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

There is still some controversy about the treatment of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection and the treatment endpoints. A 48-year-old patient was treated with a combination of peginterferon- α and adefovir, and HDV RNA clearance occurred after 3. years of treatment. However, treatment was continued until HBs antigen (Ag) seroconversion, which occurred after 5. years of therapy. One. year after the end of the treatment, the patient was still HBs Ag and HDV RNA negative. This case report suggests that combined peginterferon- α and adefovir may be effective in treating HDV infection and, if given over a longer period, may result in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion. It highlights the interest of using HBsAg quantification associated with a sensitive RT-PCR approach for monitoring the treatment of chronic hepatitis delta. HBsAg seroconversion, or at least significant decrease, could be a more relevant endpoint than HDV RNA undetectability for discontinuing HDV treatment and preventing the occurrence of virological relapses. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source


Nagpal R.,Juntendo University | Kaur V.,Juntendo University | Kumar M.,National Institute of Nutrition | Marotta F.,Hepato Gastroenterology Unit
Acta Biomedica | Year: 2012

In present investigation, different concentrations of Aloe vera juice incorporated into the growth media of Lactobacilli were tested to observe the effect on growth and activities of these bacteria. From the results obtained, it was observed that aloe vera juice at a concentration of 5% v/v was effective in promoting the growth of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and L. casei, as evident from the fall in pH and increased acidity, as well as from the improved generation time. At 15 to 25% concentration, growth was unaffected as compared to the controls; however, concentration higher than 25%v/v discouraged the growth. Overall, it was concluded that Aloe vera juice or gel at a particular concentration could possibly be used in combination with probiotic Lactobacillus strain(s) as a combinational therapy for gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. © Mattioli 1885. Source


Katz L.,Tel Aviv University | Gisbert J.P.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | Manoogian B.,University of Michigan | Lin K.,University of California at San Francisco | And 24 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Intensifying infliximab therapy is often practiced in Crohn's disease (CD) patients losing response to the drug but there are no data if halving the interval is superior to doubling the dose. We aimed to assess the efficacy of infliximab dose intensification by interval-halving compared with dose-doubling. Methods: A multicenter retrospective study of CD patients losing response to infliximab was undertaken. The clinical outcome of patients whose infusion intervals were halved (5 mg/kg/4 weeks) was compared with patients treated by dose-doubling (10 mg/kg/8 weeks). Results: In all, 168 patients were included from 18 centers in Europe, USA, and Israel. Of these, 112 were intensified by dose-doubling and 56 received interval-halving strategy. Early response to dose-escalation was experienced by 86/112 (77%) patients in the dose-doubling group compared with 37/56 patients (66%) in the interval-halving group (odds ratio [OR] 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-3.4, P = 0.14). Sustained clinical response at 12 months postescalation was maintained in 50% of patients in the dose-doubling group compared with 39% in the interval-halving group (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.9, P = 0.2). On multivariate analysis, predictors of long-term response to escalation were a nonsmoking status, CD diagnosis between 16-40 years of age, and normal C-reactive protein (CRP). Conclusions: Dose intensification leads to a sustained regained response in 47% of CD patients who lost response to standard infliximab dose, but halving the infusion intervals is probably not superior to dose-doubling. Given the costs and patient inconvenience incurred by an additional infusion visit, the dose-doubling strategy may be preferable to the interval-halving strategy. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012;) Copyright © 2012 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc. Source

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