Hennepin Regional Poison Center

Minneapolis, MN, United States

Hennepin Regional Poison Center

Minneapolis, MN, United States
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Cole J.B.,Regions Hospital | Cole J.B.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Stellpflug S.J.,Regions Hospital | Ellsworth H.,Regions Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Background. High dose insulin (HDI) has proven superior to glucagon and catecholamines in the treatment of poison-induced cardiogenic shock (PICS) in previous animal studies. Standard recommendations for dosing of insulin vary and the optimal dose of HDI in PICS has not been established. Our hypothesis was a dose of 10 U/kg/hr of HDI would be superior to 1 U/kg/hr with cardiac output (CO) as our primary outcome measure in pigs with propranolol-induced PICS. Methods. This was a blinded, prospective, randomized trial with 4 arms consisting of 4 pigs in each arm. The arms were as follows: placebo (P), 1 U/kg/hr (HDI-1), 5 U/kg/hr (HDI-5), and 10 U/kg/hr (HDI-10). Cardiogenic shock was induced with a bolus of 0.5 mg/kg of propranolol followed by an infusion of 0.25 mg/kg/min until the point of toxicity, defined as 0.75 x (HR x MAP) was reached. At this point the propranolol infusion was decreased to 0.125 mg/kg/min and a 20 mL/kg bolus of normal saline (NS) was administered. The protocol was continued for 6 hours or until the animals died. Results. 2 pigs died in the P arm, 1 pig died each in the HDI-1 and HDI-5 arms, and all pigs lived in the HDI-10 arm. There was a statistically significant difference in dose by time interaction on CO of 1.13 L/min over the 6 hr study period (p = < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant difference in dose by time interaction on MAP, HR, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). No statistically significant difference was found between any of the arms regarding glucose utilization. Conclusion. HDI was statistically and clinically significantly superior to placebo in this propranolol model of PICS. Furthermore a dose response over time was found where CO increased corresponding to increases in doses of HDI. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Stellpflug S.J.,Regions Hospital Clinical Toxicology Service | Stellpflug S.J.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Harris C.R.,Regions Hospital Clinical Toxicology Service | Engebretsen K.M.,Regions Hospital Clinical Toxicology Service | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Introduction. Nebivolol, a beta blocker with 310 times more β1 cardioselectivity than metoprolol, has caused hypotension and bradycardia in overdose. We report a nebivolol-induced cardiac arrest in the setting of a polydrug ingestion, successfully resuscitated with intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) and high-dose insulin (HDI). Case report. A 48-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after ingesting nebivolol and ethanol, along with possibly diazepam and cocaine. He had a heart rate of 71/min and a blood pressure of 9861 mmHg. The initial ECG showed sinus rhythm with a QTc of 483 ms and a QRS of 112 ms. Over the subsequent 4 h, he became bradycardic and hypotensive and developed bradyasystolic cardiac arrest. Standard resuscitation including epinephrine had no effect. Spontaneous circulation returned 30 s after a 100 mL bolus of 20% IFE, and the patient then became briefly hypertensive and tachycardic with heart rate and blood pressure measured as high as 123/min and 251/162 mmHg, respectively. His care included IFE infusion along with HDI bolus and infusion with doses as high as 21.8 unitskgh. With subsequent hypotension, vasopressors were withheld in favor of HDI and supportive care. He was discharged with baseline neurologic function. Discussion. We hypothesize that after the administration of IFE the epinephrine was able to exert its effect on receptors previously occupied with the nebivolol. This would be congruent with the lipid sink theory of IFE mechanism. Conclusion. We report an overdose involving nebivolol in a polydrug ingestion resulting in cardiac arrest, successfully treated with IFE and a very HDI infusion. Copyright © Informa UK, Ltd.


Cole J.B.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Cole J.B.,Hennepin County Medical Center | Sattiraju S.,University of Minnesota | Bilden E.F.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | And 2 more authors.
PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology | Year: 2012

Tramadol is a commonly prescribed synthetic opioid analgesic. In humans, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes consistent with sodium-channel blockade have not been described in overdoses with tramadol. We report a case of isolated tramadol overdose associated with a Brugada ECG pattern. A review of the literature reveals no previous human cases of tramadol overdose causing ECG changes consistent with sodium-channel blockade. However, in vitro blockade of sodium-channels has been demonstrated with high concentrations of tramadol. Tramadol overdose should be recognized as a cause for the manifestation of a Brugada ECG pattern in the setting of suicidal intoxication. (PACE 2012; 35:e219-e221) ©2010, The Authors. No claim to original US government works.


Evens Z.N.,Regions Hospital Toxicology Education and Clinical Services | Stellpflug S.J.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2012

Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), English holly (Ilex aquifolium), American holly (Ilex opaca), bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), American mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and European mistletoe (Viscum album).


Cole J.B.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Stellpflug S.J.,Regions Hospital | Engebretsen K.M.,Regions Hospital
Journal of Medical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Use of intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) for the treatment of poisoned patients in extremis is increasing. Little literature exists describing failures and complications of IFE. We describe two cardiac arrests temporally associated with IFE. A 50-year-old woman presented after ingesting 80 total tablets of metoprolol 25 mg and bupropion 150 mg. Bradycardia and hypotension were refractory to calcium salts, catecholamines, and high dose insulin (HDI). With a pulse of 40/min and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30 mmHg, 100 mL of 20 % IFE was given; within 30 s, brady-asystolic arrest occurred. Pulses returned after 3 min of CPR. The patient died on hospital day 4 of multisystem organ failure (MSOF). A 53-year-old man presented after ingesting of 3,600 mg of diltiazem and 1,200 mg of propranolol. Bradycardia and hypotension were refractory to calcium salts, catecholamines, HDI, bicarbonate, and atropine. With a pulse of 30/min and a MAP of 40 mmHg, 150 mL of 20 % IFE was given; within 1 min, a brady-asystolic arrest occurred. Pulses returned after 6 min of CPR. The patient died on hospital day 7 of MSOF. Reported cases of IFE failures or potential complications are sparse. This report adds only case experience, not clarity. We report two cardiac arrests that were temporally associated with IFE. © 2014 American College of Medical Toxicology.


Lee S.C.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Klein-Schwartz W.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Doyon S.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Doyon S.,Johns Hopkins University | Welsh C.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2014

Background: Polysubstance use is prevalent in individuals using buprenorphine or methadone nonmedically, with benzodiazepines being a common co-ingestant. The objective of this study was to compare the severity of buprenorphine and methadone toxicity with concomitant use of benzodiazepines. Methods: A retrospective analysis of buprenorphine and methadone cases from November 1, 2002 to December 31, 2010 reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, nonmedical use of methadone with benzodiazepines (methadone-BZD) or buprenorphine with benzodiazepines (BUP-BZD), and case followed to a documented outcome. Cases with co-ingestants other than benzodiazepines were excluded. Clinical effects, treatments, disposition and final medical outcomes were evaluated. Results: There were 692 methadone-BZD cases and 72 BUP-BZD cases. Clinical effects in methadone-BZD and BUP-BZD groups were lethargy (71.1%, 59.7%), respiratory depression (29.0%, 15.3%), coma (22.4%, 5.6%), respiratory arrest (4.5%, 0), hypotension (11.8%, 2.8%) and cardiac arrest (1.9%, 0), respectively. Patients in the methadone-BZD group were four-times more likely to receive naloxone (60.4% vs 15.3%) or be intubated (16.3% vs 4.2%) than in the BUP-BZD group. Hospitalization rates were highest for methadone-BZD patients with 67.3% receiving medical admissions compared to 43.3% of BUP-BZD patients. Outcomes were more serious for methadone-BZD cases (p< 0.0001); while there were no BUP-BZD deaths, exposure to methadone-BZD yielded 16 deaths. Conclusions: Nonmedical use of benzodiazepines with methadone is associated with higher hospitalization rates, greater ICU utilization rates and considerably worse medical outcomes when compared to nonmedical use of benzodiazepines with buprenorphine. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Ho J.D.,Hennepin County Medical Center | Smith S.W.,Hennepin County Medical Center | Nystrom P.C.,Hennepin County Medical Center | Dawes D.M.,Lompoc Valley Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Prehospital Emergency Care | Year: 2013

Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) is a medical emergency usually presenting first in the prehospital environment. Untreated ExDS is associated with a high mortality rate and is gaining recognition within organized medicine as an emerging public safety problem. It is highly associated with male gender, middle age, chronic illicit stimulant abuse, and mental illness. Management of ExDS often begins in the field when first responders, law enforcement personnel, and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel respond to requests from witnesses who observe subjects exhibiting bizarre, agitated behavior. Although appropriate prehospital management of subjects with ExDS is still under study, there is increasing awareness of the danger of untreated ExDS, and the danger associated with the need for subject restraint, whether physical or chemical. We describe two ExDS patients who were successfully chemically restrained with ketamine in the prehospital environment, and who had good outcomes without complication. These are among the first case reports in the literature of ExDS survival without complication using this novel prehospital sedation management protocol. This strategy bears further study and surveillance by the prehospital care community for evaluation of side effects and unintended complications. Copyright © 2012 Informa Plc.


Cole J.B.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center
Pediatric emergency care | Year: 2011

Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine commonly implicated in overdose. It has many pharmacologic effects, including sodium channel blockade. Overdoses in toddlers causing QRS prolongation are only rarely reported and never with effective use of sodium bicarbonate. We report a diphenhydramine overdose in a toddler with multiple markers of sodium channel blockade effectively treated with sodium bicarbonate. A 13-month-old infant girl was brought in by the emergency medical service for a witnessed tonic-clonic seizure. Two hours previously, the child had been found with an open bottle of 25-mg diphenhydramine tablets, 24 of which were missing. Midazolam was administered with seizure resolution. Examination revealed 4-mm reactive pupils; nystagmus; warm, dry, flushed skin; and altered mental status. Initial electrocardiograms revealed sinus tachycardia at a rate of 180 beats per minute, a prolonged QRS of 130 milliseconds (from a baseline of 65 milliseconds), and a positive terminal R wave in aVR, which later resolved after sodium bicarbonate treatment. The patient was discharged home the following day with no sequelae. Diphenhydramine toxicity is a common poisoning in children. Toxicity typically presents with signs and symptoms of the anticholinergic toxidrome. Diphenhydramine also has sodium channel-blocking properties, and this can be shown in the form of prolonged QRS and a terminal R wave in aVR. QRS prolongation and aVR abnormalities from diphenhydramine ingestion in a toddler have been reported, but effective use of sodium bicarbonate has not. Electrocardiographic finding consistent with sodium channel blockade should be recognized as a complication of pediatric diphenhydramine overdose, and they seem responsive to hypertonic sodium bicarbonate.


Cole J.B.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Stellpflug S.J.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Engebretsen K.M.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center
Journal of medical toxicology : official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Use of intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) for the treatment of poisoned patients in extremis is increasing. Little literature exists describing failures and complications of IFE. We describe two cardiac arrests temporally associated with IFE. A 50-year-old woman presented after ingesting 80 total tablets of metoprolol 25 mg and bupropion 150 mg. Bradycardia and hypotension were refractory to calcium salts, catecholamines, and high dose insulin (HDI). With a pulse of 40/min and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30 mmHg, 100 mL of 20 % IFE was given; within 30 s, brady-asystolic arrest occurred. Pulses returned after 3 min of CPR. The patient died on hospital day 4 of multisystem organ failure (MSOF). A 53-year-old man presented after ingesting of 3,600 mg of diltiazem and 1,200 mg of propranolol. Bradycardia and hypotension were refractory to calcium salts, catecholamines, HDI, bicarbonate, and atropine. With a pulse of 30/min and a MAP of 40 mmHg, 150 mL of 20 % IFE was given; within 1 min, a brady-asystolic arrest occurred. Pulses returned after 6 min of CPR. The patient died on hospital day 7 of MSOF. Reported cases of IFE failures or potential complications are sparse. This report adds only case experience, not clarity. We report two cardiac arrests that were temporally associated with IFE.


Cole J.B.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Dunbar J.F.,Hennepin County Medical Center | McIntire S.A.,University of Minnesota | Regelmann W.E.,University of Minnesota | Slusher T.M.,Minneapolis
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Butyrfentanyl is a potent short-acting opioid and a fentanyl analog with uncertain clinical effects. A review of the literature reveals no human case reports of butyrfentanyl overdose. As the use of analog and synthetic drugs continues to increase, clinicians are often faced with tremendous uncertainty when they encounter patients exposed to these synthetic drugs. We describe, to our knowledge, the first case of a butyrfentanyl overdose that resulted in clinically significant hemoptysis, acute lung injury, hypoxic respiratory failure, and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Complicating this case was a false-positive urine drug screen for fentanyl. Clinicians who encounter fentanyl exposures should be aware they may in fact be dealing with butyrfentanyl. As little is known of butyrfentanyl and our patient suffered a significant pulmonary hemorrhage, those who encounter butyrfentanyl exposures should monitor for hemorrhagic complications. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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