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Huang P.-P.,Henan Normal University | Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Wang C.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Zhang W.-H.,Henan Normal University | Wang J.-J.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2010

The embryonic developmental toxicity of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) on the goldfish Carassius auratus was evaluated in this study. First, the 72 h 50% lethal concentrations (72 h-LC50) for [C8mim]Br in goldfish embryos at the stages of cleavage, early gastrula, closure of blastopore, and heart beating were determined by preliminary acute toxicity tests. After that, fish embryos in different developmental stages (cleavage, early gastrula, closure of blastopore, and heart beating) were exposed to 10.4, 20.8, 41.6, and 104 mg/L of [C8mim]Br until their hatching stage. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that 72 h-LC50 values at the early cleavage, early gastrula, closure of blastopore, and heart beating stages of development were 208.96, 187.1, 245.03, and 298.33 mg/L, respectively. In the subchronic tests, [C8mim]Br exposure prolonged the duration of embryo dechorionation and decreased the hatching rates of the treated embryos compared to control embryos. In addition, [C8mim]Br treatment also caused remarkable increases of embryonic malformation and mortality ratio in most treatment groups. Finally, we also found that the embryonic and developmental toxicity of [C8mim]Br on fish embryos was dose-response and developmental stage-specific. These results indicate that [C8mim]Br has toxic effects on the early embryonic development of goldfish, and the risk to aquatic ecosystem by ILs leaking into the water body must be evaluated in the future. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Luo Y.-R.,Henan Normal University | Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Yun M.-X.,East China Normal University | Wang J.-J.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control | Sun Z.-J.,China Agricultural University
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2010

To evaluate the toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) to Eisenia foetida, effects of [C8mim]Br on the growth, reproductive ability, and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of earthworms were determined under laboratory conditions using artificial soil as substrate. The results showed that [C8mim]Br in high concentrations significantly inhibited the growth of the earthworms. These effects were enhanced with prolonged exposure to and increasing concentration of [C8mim]Br. E. foetida's reproductive ability was significantly inhibited after 42d of subchronic exposure to [C8mim]Br at a concentration ≥5mgkg-1 artificial soil (dry weight). During acute exposure, a high concentration of [C8mim]Br ≥40mgkg-1 artificial soil (dry weight) inhibited the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Mg++-ATPase after 3 and 7d of exposure. After 42d of subchronic exposure, the activity of both ATPases was inhibited in groups exposed to ≥5mg[C8mim]Brkg-1 artificial soil (dry weight). These results indicate that treatment with the ionic liquid [C8mim]Br affects the growth, reproductive ability, and ATPase activity of earthworms E. foetida. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Dong X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Bai X.,Henan Normal University | Liu L.,Henan Normal University | Wang J.-J.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2014

The embryonic and postembryonic developmental toxicity of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to the snail Physa acuta was evaluated in this study. The results of embryonic toxicity tests showed that lower concentrations of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) (1.5 and 2.1 mg/L) inhibited the hatching rate of snail embryos, and partial snails hatched normally and died, while all of the treated embryos died when the exposure concentration was higher than 4.16 mg/L, at which IL caused the deformation, death, and decay of snail embryos. Statistical analyses revealed obvious differences in the hatching rates between three developmental stages in the 2.1 and 2.94 mg/L groups, indicating that the veliger stage is more sensitive to [C8mim]Br exposure than the blastula and gastrula stages. Furthermore, the 96 h LC50 values of [C8mim]Br on the tested snails at three developmental stages (juvenile, subadult, and adult) were 70.83 ± 2.99, 97.59 ± 4.05, and 109.3 ± 2.22 mg/L, respectively, indicating that young snails were more sensitive to [C8mim]Br toxicity than adults. In addition, the 96 h LC50 values of ILs with different alkyl chain lengths, that is, [C12mim], [C10mim], [C8mim], and [C6mim], in adult snails were 1.35 ± 0.24, 8.96 ± 5.66, 109.3 ± 4, and 359.6 ± 11.6 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that longer alkyl chains can increase the toxicity of imidazolium ILs on snails. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Ma J.-M.,Henan Normal University | Ma J.-M.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control | Cai L.-L.,Henan Normal University | Zhang B.-J.,Henan Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2010

In the present study, the acute toxicity of 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Cnmim]Br) on the green algal Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella ellipsoidea was determined. The length of alkyl side chain of these imidazolium ionic liquids were C4, C6, C8, C10 and C12. The primary production of S. obliquus was also assessed after they were exposed to 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00mg/L of [C10mim]Br for 96h. The results showed that the acute toxicity of these ionic liquids was positively correlated with the alkyl chain length. Meanwhile, the concentration of the ionic liquid strongly influenced the primary production of algae. These results indicate that [Cnmim]Br with longer alkyl length have toxic effects on the green algae, and the risk to aquatic ecosystems by ionic liquid's leaking into the water body must be evaluated in the future. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.


Guo W.,Henan Normal University | Guo W.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control | Guo W.,Xinxiang Medical University | Cui Y.,Henan Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2014

Development of highly efficient anode is critical for enhancing the power output of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The aim of this work is to investigate whether modification of carbon paper (CP) anode with graphene (GR) via layer-by-layer assembly technique is an effective approach to promote the electricity generation and methyl orange removal in MFCs. Using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the GR/CP electrode exhibited better electrochemical behavior. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that the surface roughness of GR/CP increased, which was favorable for more bacteria to attach to the anode surface. The MFCs equipped with GR/CP anode achieved a stable maximum power density of 368 mW m-2 under 1,000 Ω external resistance and a start time for the initial maximum voltage of 180 h, which were, respectively, 51 % higher and 31 % shorter than the corresponding values of the MFCs with blank anode. The anode and cathode polarization curves revealed negligible difference in cathode potentials but obviously difference in anode potentials, indicating that the GR-modified anode other than the cathode was responsible for the performance improvement of MFC. Meanwhile, compared with MFCs with blank anode, 11 % higher decolorization efficiency and 16 % higher the chemical oxygen demand removal rate were achieved in MFC with GR-modified anode during electricity generation. This study might provide an effective way to modify the anode for enhanced electricity generation and efficient removal of azo dye in MFCs. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Zhou Q.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zhou Q.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control | Zhang X.,CAS Zhengzhou Research Institute | Xie G.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology
Analytical Methods | Year: 2011

This paper developed a new method with temperature controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides such as fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and bifenthrin in water samples. The effect of alkyl chain length of ionic liquid 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and other parameters such as sample pH, temperature, salting-out effect and sample volume on the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. Four different alkyl chain length ionic liquids ([C nMIM][PF6], n = 4, 6, 7, 8) were tested. The experimental results demonstrated that the alkyl chain length of ionic liquids (ILs) did have an important role on the extraction efficiency. The experimental results indicated that the longer alkyl chain length of ILs resulted in better extraction efficiency. Among the four ILs, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C8MIM] [PF6] was the best one for extraction of the target analytes. Under the optimized conditions, three pyrethroid insecticides had limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) in the range of 0.34∼0.48 μg L-1. The precisions of the proposed method (RSDs, n = 6) with a spiked concentration of 20 μg L-1 were in the range of 2.0∼3.4%. The proposed method was evaluated with real water samples spiked at a concentration of 10 ng mL-1 and good spiked recoveries over the range of 89.2∼102.7% were obtained. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Jing C.-Q.,Henan Normal University | Jing C.-Q.,Xinxiang Medical University | Lei W.-L.,Henan Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

The cytotoxicity of alkylmethylimidazolium-based ionic liquids on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH), and acridine orange staining in the present study. Mitochondrial depolarization, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and caspase-3 activity were also determined. The results showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity of ionic liquids on PC12 cells, and the ionic liquids with longer lateral chains had stronger cytotoxicity. Additionally, we found that exposure to the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) provoked cellular LDH release, increased mitochondrial depolarization, induced cellular transmogrification, nuclear shrinkage and DNA fragmentation, and promoted caspase-3 activity and ROS levels in PC12 cells. These results suggest that [C8mim]Br may induce PC12 cell apoptosis triggered by excessive ROS and mediated by mitochondrial depolarization and permeability transition. Our result may be helpful for illuminating the cytotoxicity mechanism of alkylmethylimidazolium-based ionic liquids and safely using them in the future. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Zeng S.-H.,Henan Normal University | Dong X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Ma J.-G.,Henan Normal University | Wang J.-J.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2012

Acute toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C 8mim]Br) to goldfish at different developmental stages and responses of the antioxidant system in adult goldfish were evaluated in the present study. The results indicate that post-embryonic developmental toxicity of [C 8mim]Br on goldfish is developmental-stage dependent. The juvenile and larva goldfish are more sensitive to [C 8mim]Br-toxicity than the adult fish. Histological observations in adult goldfish reveal that acute [C 8mim]Br exposure damages the hepatopancreas, intestines, and kidneys, indicating that these are possible target organs of [C 8mim]Br toxicity in goldfish. Subsequent biochemical assays in adult goldfish show that [C 8mim]Br also induces changes in the activities of the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione content of fish hepatopancreas. These results suggest that [C 8mim]Br exposure may induce oxidant stress and lipid peroxidation in hepatopancreas of adult goldfish. In addition, we also find that [C 8mim]Br causes a remarkable increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the hepatopancreas of adult goldfish, and thus we think that the MDA level change can be a biomarker of [C 8mim]Br toxicity in goldfish. The present study indicates that ionic liquids can be a threat to the survival, growth, and development of the fish population once they are accidentally leaked into aquatic ecosystems. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Miao X.-Q.,Henan Normal University | Zhang L.-F.,Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College | Wang J.-J.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

In the present study, the immunotoxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C 8mim]Br) on brocarded carp was evaluated by an acute exposure of 100-300mgL -1 of [C 8mim]Br for 7 days. The results showed 300mgL -1 of [C 8mim]Br exposure caused activity inhibition of specific and non-specific immune systems, mainly including IgM level, lysozyme activity, and complement C3 content, while 100mgL -1 of [C 8mim]Br activated fish immune system during the early periods of exposure (2-5 days). This result indicates that [C 8mim]Br has immunotoxicity on brocarded carp. Additionally, histological observation revealed that 300mgL -1 of [C 8mim]Br-exposure led to remarkable damages to the hepatopancreas, kidney, and spleen of brocarded carp after 7 days of [C 8mim]Br treatment, although not only change in kidney and spleen somatic indexes was found, but also no swelling or hemorrhage of carp viscera occurred. © 2011 .


Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Zeng S.-H.,Henan Normal University | Zhang W.-H.,Henan Normal University | Liu L.,Henan Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2013

In the present study, goldfish toxicity and superficial damage from 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) exposure were evaluated by an acute toxicity test. These results show that the 24-h 50% lethal concentration for [C8mim]Br in goldfish is 244 mg L-1, and this indicates that [C8mim]Br is a chemical with moderate or low toxicity to organisms. Scanning electronic microscope and histological observations revealed that acute exposure to [C8mim]Br induced obvious superficial damage to the skin, gill filaments, and intestinal villi of the goldfish, and this suggests that the skin, gills, and intestines may be the first direct targets of the ionic liquid in this fish. Histological examination also indicated that [C8mim]Br-exposure caused damage to the goldfish's hepatopancreas and kidney, consisting mainly of hepatic cords in a loose connection, hepatic cytoplasmic vacuolation, renal parenchyma vacuolization, and intumescence of the renal tubule. In addition, we found that [C8mim]Br caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the hepatopancreases from these goldfish, and thus we suggest that the MDA level may be a biomarker of [C8mim]Br-toxicity in goldfish. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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