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Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Dong X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Bai X.,Henan Normal University | Liu L.,Henan Normal University | Wang J.-J.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2014

The embryonic and postembryonic developmental toxicity of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to the snail Physa acuta was evaluated in this study. The results of embryonic toxicity tests showed that lower concentrations of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) (1.5 and 2.1 mg/L) inhibited the hatching rate of snail embryos, and partial snails hatched normally and died, while all of the treated embryos died when the exposure concentration was higher than 4.16 mg/L, at which IL caused the deformation, death, and decay of snail embryos. Statistical analyses revealed obvious differences in the hatching rates between three developmental stages in the 2.1 and 2.94 mg/L groups, indicating that the veliger stage is more sensitive to [C8mim]Br exposure than the blastula and gastrula stages. Furthermore, the 96 h LC50 values of [C8mim]Br on the tested snails at three developmental stages (juvenile, subadult, and adult) were 70.83 ± 2.99, 97.59 ± 4.05, and 109.3 ± 2.22 mg/L, respectively, indicating that young snails were more sensitive to [C8mim]Br toxicity than adults. In addition, the 96 h LC50 values of ILs with different alkyl chain lengths, that is, [C12mim], [C10mim], [C8mim], and [C6mim], in adult snails were 1.35 ± 0.24, 8.96 ± 5.66, 109.3 ± 4, and 359.6 ± 11.6 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that longer alkyl chains can increase the toxicity of imidazolium ILs on snails. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Huang P.-P.,Henan Normal University | Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Wang C.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Zhang W.-H.,Henan Normal University | Wang J.-J.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2010

The embryonic developmental toxicity of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) on the goldfish Carassius auratus was evaluated in this study. First, the 72 h 50% lethal concentrations (72 h-LC50) for [C8mim]Br in goldfish embryos at the stages of cleavage, early gastrula, closure of blastopore, and heart beating were determined by preliminary acute toxicity tests. After that, fish embryos in different developmental stages (cleavage, early gastrula, closure of blastopore, and heart beating) were exposed to 10.4, 20.8, 41.6, and 104 mg/L of [C8mim]Br until their hatching stage. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that 72 h-LC50 values at the early cleavage, early gastrula, closure of blastopore, and heart beating stages of development were 208.96, 187.1, 245.03, and 298.33 mg/L, respectively. In the subchronic tests, [C8mim]Br exposure prolonged the duration of embryo dechorionation and decreased the hatching rates of the treated embryos compared to control embryos. In addition, [C8mim]Br treatment also caused remarkable increases of embryonic malformation and mortality ratio in most treatment groups. Finally, we also found that the embryonic and developmental toxicity of [C8mim]Br on fish embryos was dose-response and developmental stage-specific. These results indicate that [C8mim]Br has toxic effects on the early embryonic development of goldfish, and the risk to aquatic ecosystem by ILs leaking into the water body must be evaluated in the future. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Luo Y.-R.,Henan Normal University | Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Yun M.-X.,East China Normal University | Wang J.-J.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control | Sun Z.-J.,China Agricultural University
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2010

To evaluate the toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) to Eisenia foetida, effects of [C8mim]Br on the growth, reproductive ability, and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of earthworms were determined under laboratory conditions using artificial soil as substrate. The results showed that [C8mim]Br in high concentrations significantly inhibited the growth of the earthworms. These effects were enhanced with prolonged exposure to and increasing concentration of [C8mim]Br. E. foetida's reproductive ability was significantly inhibited after 42d of subchronic exposure to [C8mim]Br at a concentration ≥5mgkg-1 artificial soil (dry weight). During acute exposure, a high concentration of [C8mim]Br ≥40mgkg-1 artificial soil (dry weight) inhibited the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Mg++-ATPase after 3 and 7d of exposure. After 42d of subchronic exposure, the activity of both ATPases was inhibited in groups exposed to ≥5mg[C8mim]Brkg-1 artificial soil (dry weight). These results indicate that treatment with the ionic liquid [C8mim]Br affects the growth, reproductive ability, and ATPase activity of earthworms E. foetida. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Zhou Q.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zhou Q.,Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control | Zhang X.,CAS Zhengzhou Research Institute | Xie G.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology
Analytical Methods | Year: 2011

This paper developed a new method with temperature controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides such as fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and bifenthrin in water samples. The effect of alkyl chain length of ionic liquid 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and other parameters such as sample pH, temperature, salting-out effect and sample volume on the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. Four different alkyl chain length ionic liquids ([C nMIM][PF6], n = 4, 6, 7, 8) were tested. The experimental results demonstrated that the alkyl chain length of ionic liquids (ILs) did have an important role on the extraction efficiency. The experimental results indicated that the longer alkyl chain length of ILs resulted in better extraction efficiency. Among the four ILs, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C8MIM] [PF6] was the best one for extraction of the target analytes. Under the optimized conditions, three pyrethroid insecticides had limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) in the range of 0.34∼0.48 μg L-1. The precisions of the proposed method (RSDs, n = 6) with a spiked concentration of 20 μg L-1 were in the range of 2.0∼3.4%. The proposed method was evaluated with real water samples spiked at a concentration of 10 ng mL-1 and good spiked recoveries over the range of 89.2∼102.7% were obtained. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Li X.-Y.,Henan Normal University | Jing C.-Q.,Henan Normal University | Jing C.-Q.,Xinxiang Medical University | Lei W.-L.,Henan Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

The cytotoxicity of alkylmethylimidazolium-based ionic liquids on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH), and acridine orange staining in the present study. Mitochondrial depolarization, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and caspase-3 activity were also determined. The results showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity of ionic liquids on PC12 cells, and the ionic liquids with longer lateral chains had stronger cytotoxicity. Additionally, we found that exposure to the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) provoked cellular LDH release, increased mitochondrial depolarization, induced cellular transmogrification, nuclear shrinkage and DNA fragmentation, and promoted caspase-3 activity and ROS levels in PC12 cells. These results suggest that [C8mim]Br may induce PC12 cell apoptosis triggered by excessive ROS and mediated by mitochondrial depolarization and permeability transition. Our result may be helpful for illuminating the cytotoxicity mechanism of alkylmethylimidazolium-based ionic liquids and safely using them in the future. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

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