Zhengzhou, China
Zhengzhou, China

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PubMed | Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Uppsala University and Henan Geological Museum
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Compared to pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous from China, Late Jurassic pterosaurs are relatively rare. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur, Orientognathus chaoyngensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. It is identified by the following characters: the toothless tip of the lower jaw is slightly pointed; the length ratio of wing metacarpal to humerus is 0.38, the ulna is shorter than each wing phalanx and the tibia is nearly equal to femur in length. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Orientognathus chaoyngensis as a rhamphorhynchid pterosaur. Orientognathus chaoyngensis is perhaps the youngest Jurassic pterosaur from western Liaoning Province of China.

PubMed | Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, American Museum of Natural History and Henan Geological Museum
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

A new multituberculate, Yubaartar zhongyuanensis gen. and sp. nov., is reported from the Upper Cretaceous of Luanchuan County, Henan Province, China. The holotype of the new taxon is a partial skeleton with nearly complete cranium and associated lower jaws with in situ dentitions. The new species is the southern-most record of a Late Cretaceous multituberculate from outside of the Mongolian Plateau in Asia and represents the largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia. The new specimen displays some intriguing features previously unknown in multituberculates, such as the first evidence of replacement of the ultimate upper premolar and a unique paleopathological case in Mesozoic mammals in which the animal with a severely broken right tibia could heal and survive in natural condition. The phylogenetic analysis based on craniodental characters places Yubaartar as the immediate outgroup of Taeniolabidoidea, a group consisting of a North American clade and an Asian clade. This relationship indicates at least a faunal interchange of multituberculates before the K-Pg transition. The new evidence further supports the hypothesis that disparity in dental complexity, which relates to animal diets, increased with generic richness and disparity in body size, and that an adaptive shift towards increased herbivory across the K-Pg transitional interval.

O'Connor J.K.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Chang H.,Henan Geological Museum
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2015

Recently a specimen of Sapeornis was described with feathers around the ankle joint, the first basal bird with metatarsal feathers. The discovery of several groups of paravians with feathered distal hindlimbs has been used as evidence that flight in Aves evolved through a tetrapteryx stage. However, most specimens of Sapeornis do not preserve feathers around the feet, and these feathers are clearly absent in at least one exceptional specimen preserving skin and feather impressions. This suggests that the presence of ankle feathers in Sapeornis may alternatively be interpreted as ornamentation. Basal birds show more ornamental tail morphologies than aerodynamic ones suggesting that sexual selection played a dominant role in shaping tail plumage. Feathers on the forelimbs initially evolved for a purpose other than flight and we propose aerodynamics was not the driving force in hindlimb feather evolution. We suggest that feathers as a means of visual communication played a very important role in the evolution of paravian plumage. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Xu L.,Henan Geological Museum | Li X.-W.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Jia S.-H.,Henan Geological Museum | Liu J.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2015

Honania complicidentata and Tsiyuania simplicidentata are pareiasaur taxa based on material from the Shangshihezi Formation of Jiyuan, Henan Province, China that were earlier designated as nomina vana. Based on the study of new material, and the reexamination of old specimens, we determine that the pareiasaur material from Jiyuan represents a single species that differs from all known species from other localities. Thus, we resurrect the name H. complicidentata for the material from Jiyuan. H. complicidentata is characterized by maxillary teeth with high crowns, dentary teeth slightly posteriorly inclined compared to the dentary dorsal margin, nearly all preserved marginal teeth have a cusped cingulum on the lingual surface, and humerus without an ectepicondylar foramen. Phylogenetic analysis shows Honania is more basal than Shansisaurus and Shihtienfenia from the Sunjiagou Formation of China. © 2015 L. Xing et al.

Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Xu L.,Henan Geological Museum | Liu Y.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zhang X.,Henan Geological Museum | And 2 more authors.
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2010

A new troodontid dinosaur, Xixiasaurus henanensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Majiacun Formation of the Xixia Basin, Henan Province, is erected, based on a partial skull. It is characterized by bearing 22 maxillary teeth, a distinct opening on the lateral surface of the base of nasal process of the premaxilla, the rostral end of the upper jaw forming a tapered U-shape, and the mandibular symphyseal region slightly inflected medially. Xixiasaurus is most closely related to the Mongolian Byronosaurus among troodontids. Byronosaurus, Urbacodon, and Xixiasaurus may form a new clade, suggesting an endemic radiation of troodontids across Asia, including multiple taxa without dental serrations. The discovery of Xixiasaurus in the Xixia Basin may imply that the Xixiasaurus-bearing Majiacun Formation is Campanian in age.

Junchang L.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Liz X.,Henan Geological Museum | Huali C.,Henan Geological Museum | Xingliao Z.,Henan Geological Museum
Acta Geologica Sinica | Year: 2011

A new species of Darwinopterus, D. robastodens sp. nov. is described and named. Based on the new specimen, the diagnostic characters of Dorwinopterns are amended and include: rostra! dentition composed of well-spaced, spike-like teeth; the longest teeth are confined to the anterior half of the tooth row; tooth alveoli have raised margins; nasoantorbital fenestra continent; inclined quadrate; elongate cervical vertebrae with low neural spine and reduced or absent ribs; long tail of more than 20 caudals partially enclosed by filiform extensions of the pre- and postzygapophyses; short metacarpus less than 60 per cent length of humerus, fifth toe with two elongate phalanges and curved second pedal phalanx of the fifth toe with the angle between the proximal and distal segments about 130 degrees. The complete specimen of the new pterosaur D. robustodens sp. nov. provides much more osteological information. The differences in tooth morphologies between Dorwinopterus inoduloris and D. robustodens sp. nov. suggest that they filled different ecological niches. The hard integument- bearing Coleoptera may have been the main food source of Darwinopterus robustodens. Copyright © 1999-2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Pu H.,Henan Geological Museum | Kobayashi Y.,Hokkaido University | Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Xu L.,Henan Geological Museum | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Therizinosauria are an unusual group of theropod dinosaurs, found mostly in the Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia, China and western USA. The basal forms of this group are represented by incomplete or disarticulated material. Here, we report a nearly complete, articulated skeleton of a new basal therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Jianchang County, western part of Liaoning Province, which sheds light on our understanding of anatomy of basal therizinosaurs. This new dinosaur shows some typical therizinosaur features, such as neural spines of the anterior caudal vertebrae that possess anterior and posterior alae, a rectangular buttress on the ventrolateral side of the proximal end of metacarpal I, and appressed metatarsal shafts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a basal therizinosaur (sister taxon to Therizinosauroidea) because it bears many basal therizinosaur characters in the dentition, pelvis and hind limbs. The new therizinosaur described here has unique tooth and jaw characters such as the offsetting of the tooth row by a shelf and dentary teeth with labially concave and lingually convex dentary teeth, similar to ornithopods and ceratopsians. © 2013 Pu et al.

Wei X.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Pu H.,Henan Geological Museum | Xu L.,Henan Geological Museum | Liu D.,Henan Geological Museum | Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
Acta Geologica Sinica | Year: 2013

A new oviraptorid dinosaur Jiangxisaurus ganzhouensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on a partial skeleton from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province. The new taxon differs from other oviraptorids in the weakly downturned rostrum of the lower jaw, much-elongated mandible with a height-to-length ratio being about 20% and the length ratio of radius to humerus of about 0.70. This species not only adds a new member to oviraptorid dinosaurs, but also provides more information about oviraptorid paleogeographical distribution in southern China.

Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Xu L.,Henan Geological Museum | Pu H.,Henan Geological Museum | Zhang X.,Henan Geological Museum | And 5 more authors.
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2013

A new long-necked sauropod dinosaur, Yunmenglong ruyangensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected on the basis of an incomplete skeleton from the late Early Cretaceous Haoling Formation of the Ruyang Basin, Henan Province. The characters of the anterior cervical vertebrae, the shape of the neural canal of the dorsal vertebra and the ball-shaped distal end of the neural spine of caudal vertebrae with coarse surfaces differ from other long-necked sauropod dinosaurs. The new genus has characters in common with both Euhelopus and Erketu; it represents the first long-necked sauropod dinosaur recorded from central China to date. The rod-like, well-developed epipophyses and the pleurocoels on the cervical vertebrae indicate that it may be close to Euhelopus, an observation also confirmed by a phylogenetic analysis, which shows that Erketu, Yunmenglong and Qiaowanlong form a clade, and are more derived than Euhelopus. © 2013 .

Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Pu H.,Henan Geological Museum | Xu L.,Henan Geological Museum | Wu Y.,Henan Geological Museum | Wei X.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
Acta Geologica Sinica | Year: 2012

A new pterosaur Moganopterus zhuiana gen. et sp. nov. is erected based on a complete skull with lower jaws and anterior cervical vertebrae. It is characterized by much elongated upper and lower jaws with at least 62 total, long, curved teeth with sharp tips, a well developed parietal crest extending posterodorsally, forming an angle of 15 degrees with the ventral margin of the skull, the ratio of length to width of cervical vertebrae greater than 5:1. The skull length is 750 mm, and it is the largest toothed pterosaur found so far in the world. Based on this new pterosaur, the Boreopteridae can be divided into two subgroups: Boreopterinae sub-fam. nov. and Moganopterinae sub-fam. nov., which is also confirmed by the phylogenetic analysis.

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