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East Missoula, MT, United States

Richardson D.J.,Quinnipiac University | Kinsella J.M.,HelmWest Laboratory
Comparative Parasitology | Year: 2010

Between March 1997 and September 2000, 3 species of owls (Bubo virginianus, Strix varia, Megascops asio), 4 species of hawks (Buteo jamaicensis, Buteo platypterus, Accipiter cooperii, Accipiter striatus), and 1 species of falcon (Falco sparverius) from Connecticut, U.S.A. were examined for gastrointestinal parasites. Eighteen species of helminths (10 trematodes, 1 cestode, 6 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan) were collected for the first time from the northeastern United States in general and Connecticut and New England in particular. The trematodes Ophiosoma microcephalum from B. jamaicensis and Neodiplostomum accipitris from A. striatus represent new host records. The trematode Microparyphium facetum collected from B. virginianus represents the first report of this helminth from a North American owl. The tapeworm Paruterina rauschi is reported for the first time from S. varia. The nematode Baruscapillaria falconis is reported for the first time from M. asio, A. cooperi, and A. striatus. The acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus kuntzi is reported for the first time from A. cooperi. One species of trematode (Neodiplostomum americanum) and 2 species of nematodes (Baruscapillaria falconis, Porrocaecum depressum) were shared between species of owls and hawks. © 2010 The Helminthological Society of Washington.

Wood J.R.,Landcare Research | Wilmshurst J.M.,Landcare Research | Rawlence N.J.,University of Adelaide | Rawlence N.J.,University of Waikato | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We perform the first multidisciplinary study of parasites from an extinct megafaunal clade using coprolites from the New Zealand moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). Ancient DNA and microscopic analyses of 84 coprolites deposited by four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; little bush moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus; and upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus) reveal an array of gastrointestinal parasites including coccidians (Cryptosporidium and members of the suborder Eimeriorina), nematodes (Heterakoidea, Trichostrongylidae, Trichinellidae) and a trematode (Echinostomida). Parasite eggs were most prevalent and diverse in coprolites from lowland sites, where multiple sympatric moa species occurred and host density was therefore probably higher. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence supports a possible vicariant Gondwanan origin for some of the moa parasites. The discovery of apparently host-specific parasite taxa suggests paleoparasitological studies of megafauna coprolites may provide useful case-studies of coextinction. © 2013 Wood et al.

Mclean E.R.,University of Notre Dame | Kinsella J.M.,HelmWest Laboratory | Chiyo P.,University of Notre Dame | Obanda V.,Kenya Wildlife Service | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2012

African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) are an ecologically and economically important species in many African habitats. However, despite the importance of elephants, research on their parasites is limited, especially in wild populations. Currently, we lack genetic tools to identify elephant parasites. We present genetic markers from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to identify five elephant-specific nematode parasites in the family Strongylidae: Murshidia linstowi, Murshidia longicaudata, Murshidia africana, Quilonia africana, and Khalilia sameera. We collected adult nematodes from feces deposited by wild elephants living in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Using both morphologic and genetic techniques, we found that the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rDNA provides a reliable marker to distinguish these species of strongyles. We found no evidence for cryptic genetic species within these morphologic species according to the cox-1 region of mtDNA. Levels of genetic diversity in strongyles from elephants were consistent with the genetic diversity seen within other strongyle species. We anticipate that these results will be a useful tool for identifying gastrointestinal nematode parasites in elephants. © Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

Tkach V.V.,University of North Dakota | Kinsella J.M.,University of North Dakota | Kinsella J.M.,HelmWest Laboratory
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

Macroderoides minutus n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from the Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrhincus) from Orange Lake, Alachua County, Florida. The new species is the ninth recognized species of Macroderoides and is morphologically closest to Macroderoides flavus and Macroderoides typicus. It differs from both species in having a smaller body, ventral sucker larger than the oral sucker, substantially lower body length to width ratio, fewer and larger eggs, and other characters. A comparison of sequences of nuclear rDNA (partial 18S, complete ITS region, and partial 28S) of the new species, with sequences of 5 other Macroderoides, convincingly supports the status of M. minutus as a new species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, including all North American Macroderoides species except for Macroderoides parvus, has demonstrated the presence of 2 distinct clades, 1 including Macroderoides spinifer + (Macroderoides minutus n. sp. + Macroderoides texanus) and the other including Macroderoides trilobatus + (M. typicus + M. flavus). The tree topology suggests that the similarity in body proportions among M. minutus n. sp., M. typicus + M. flavus is not a result of close phylogenetic relationship. It has also revealed for the first time the phylogenetic affinities of M. flavus, which is the only North American member of Macroderoides that switched from holostean fishes to teleosts. © 2011 American Society of Parasitologists.

Tkach V.V.,University of North Dakota | Makarikov A.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kinsella J.M.,HelmWest Laboratory
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

Staphylocystis clydesengeri n. sp. is described from shrews Sorex vagrans in Montana and Washington, United States. It differs from the only previously known North American representative of the genus, S. schilleri, in having more numerous (37-42 vs 22-30) and larger (39-44 μm vs 27-30 μm) rostellar hooks. The two species also differ in several other important characters such as relative length of the cirrus pouch, position of gonads and shape of mature proglottides. Morphological differentiation of the new species from all previously known Palearctic species of Staphylocystis from Sorex is also provided. Differentiation from Staphylocystis parasitic in crocidurine shrews is not provided due to the high level of specificity among shrew hymenolepidids to the host genera and much greater levels of sequence divergence between Staphylocystis from the two groups of shrews. Molecular differentiation based on 2,800 base pair long sequences of nuclear ribosomal RNA (complete ITS region and partial 28S region), 663 base pair long sequences of mitochondrial nad1 gene and 542 base pair long sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal 16S gene strongly support the status of Staphylocystis clydesengeri n. sp. Relative utility of the DNA fragments used in this study for reliable differentiation among closely related species of mammalian hymenolepidids is discussed. Nuclear ribosomal RNA region appears to be too conserved for this purpose. Use of at least one mitochondrial gene in addition to nuclear ribosomal RNA or without it, is recommended. Vampirolepis novosibirskiensis Sawada &Kobayashi, 1994 is transferred to Staphylocystis as a junior synonym of S. furcata (Stieda, 1862). Rodentolepis gnoskei Greiman &Tkach, 2012 is transferred to Pararodentolepis Makarikov and Gulyaev, 2009 as a new combination Pararodentolepis gnoskei (Greiman &Tkach, 2012) n. comb. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

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