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Pei Z.,Institute of Epidemiology I | Pei Z.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Heinrich J.,Institute of Epidemiology I | Fuertes E.,Institute of Epidemiology I | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objective To investigate whether birth by cesarean delivery rather than vaginal delivery is a risk factor for later childhood obesity. Study design Healthy, full-term infants were recruited. Overweight and obesity were defined using measured weight and height according to World Health Organization reference data. Associations between cesarean delivery and being overweight or obese were investigated at age 2, 6, and 10 years (n = 1734, 1244, and 1170, respectively) by multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic status, child characteristics, and maternal prepregnancy characteristics. Results Mothers who gave birth by cesarean delivery (∼17%) had a higher mean prepregnancy body mass index (23.7 kg/m2 vs 22.5 kg/m2), greater mean gestational weight gain (15.3 kg vs 14.5 kg), and shorter mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding (3.4 months vs 3.8 months) compared with those who delivered vaginally. The proportion of obese children was greater in the cesarean delivery group compared with the vaginal delivery group at age 2 years (13.6% vs 8.3%), but not at older ages. Regression analyses revealed a greater likelihood of obesity at age 2 years in the cesarean delivery group compared with the vaginal delivery group at age 2 years (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.10-2.58), but not at age 6 years (aOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.55-4.05) or age 10 years (aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.59-2.29). Conclusion Cesarean delivery may increase the risk of obesity in early childhood. Our results do not support the hypothesis that an increasing rate of cesarean delivery contributes to obesity in childhood. © 2014 The Authors.

Mettler T.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | Mettler T.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Muhlhaus T.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | Muhlhaus T.,University of Kaiserslautern | And 33 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2014

We investigated the systems response of metabolism and growth after an increase in irradiance in the nonsaturating range in the algal model Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In a three-step process, photosynthesis and the levels of metabolites increased immediately, growth increased after 10 to 15 min, and transcript and protein abundance responded by 40 and 120 to 240 min, respectively. In thefirst phase, starch and metabolites provided a transient buffer for carbon until growth increased. This uncouples photosynthesis from growth in afluctuating light environment. In thefirst and second phases, rising metabolite levels and increased polysome loading drove an increase influxes. Most Calvin-Benson cycle (CBC) enzymes were substrate-limited in vivo, and strikingly, many were present at higher concentrations than their substrates, explaining how rising metabolite levels stimulate CBC flux. Rubisco, fructose-1,6-biosphosphatase, and seduheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase were close to substrate saturation in vivo, and flux was increased by posttranslational activation. In the third phase, changes in abundance of particular proteins, including increases in plastidial ATP synthase and some CBC enzymes, relieved potential bottlenecks and readjusted protein allocation between different processes. Despite reasonable overall agreement between changes in transcript and protein abundance (R2 = 0.24), many proteins, including those in photosynthesis, changed independently of transcript abundance. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Szarka N.,DBFZ German Biomass Research Center | Scholwin F.,DBFZ German Biomass Research Center | Scholwin F.,University of Rostock | Trommler M.,DBFZ German Biomass Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2013

Germany has set a target of a minimum of 80% renewable energy in the power sector for the year 2050. Among renewables, a very high share of fluctuating sources is foreseen, which may substantially decrease the security of the energy supply and grid stability. Biomass-based conversion systems offer technical alternatives for flexible power generation to compensate for such fluctuations and the resulting residual load. Demand-oriented electricity can be provided by storing untreated biomass or solid, liquid, or gaseous biofuels in the existing infrastructure or by developing biological and technical alternatives. Making existing plants more flexible will increase costs due to larger storage capacities and conversion units and reduced full-load hours, but higher income can be obtained by selling electricity at peak times and by taking advantage of legislative incentives. This paper summarizes the current legislative and market conditions in Germany for demand-oriented power generation, describes possible technical solutions based on solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels, and provides an economic assessment of selected technical concepts. The results show the potential for bioenergy, especially biogas and combined heat and power (CHP) systems to play a significant role in ensuring the security of the energy supply system that is in transition in Germany. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Junior N.L.,Helmholz Center for Environmental Research | Junior N.L.,University of the Region of Joinville | Gern R.M.M.,University of the Region of Joinville | Furlan S.A.,University of the Region of Joinville | Schlosser D.,Helmholz Center for Environmental Research
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

This work aimed to study the production of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 and Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 using banana peels as alternative carbon source, the subsequent partial purification and characterization of the enzyme, as well the applicability to degrade endocrine disruptors. The laccase stability with pH and temperature, the optimum pH, the Km and Vmax parameters, and the molar mass were determined. Tests were conducted for assessing the ability of degradation of the endocrine disruptors t-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and 17a-ethinylestradiol. Laccase production of 752 and 1,117 UL-1 was obtained for Phoma sp. and P. ostreatus, respectively. Phoma sp. laccase showed higher stability with temperature and pH. The laccase from both species showed higher affinity by syringaldazine. The culture broth with banana peels induced the production of two isoforms of P. ostreatus (58.7 and 21 kDa) and one of Phoma sp. laccase (72 kDa). In the first day of incubation, the concentrations of bisphenol A and 17a-ethinylestradiol were reduced to values close to zero and after 3 days the concentration of t-nonylphenol was reduced in 90% by the P. ostreatus laccase, but there was no reduction in its concentration by the Phoma sp. laccase. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

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