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Maier S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Heitzler T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Asmus K.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Brotz E.,University of Siegen | And 5 more authors.
ChemBioChem | Year: 2015

The biologically active compound mensacarcin is produced by Streptomyces bottropensis. The cosmid cos2 contains a large part of the mensacarcin biosynthesis gene cluster. Heterologous expression of this cosmid in Streptomyces albus J1074 led to the production of the intermediate didesmethylmensacarcin (DDMM). In order to gain more insights into the biosynthesis, gene inactivation experiments were carried out by λ-Red/ET-mediated recombination, and the deletion mutants were introduced into the host S. albus. In total, 23 genes were inactivated. Analysis of the metabolic profiles of the mutant strains showed the complete collapse of DDMM biosynthesis, but upon overexpression of the SARP regulatory gene msnR1 in each mutant new intermediates were detected. The compounds were isolated, and their structures were elucidated. Based on the results the specific functions of several enzymes were determined, and a pathway for mensacarcin biosynthesis is proposed. MsnO2, MsnO4, and MsnO8: We elucidated the components of the Streptomyces bottropensis mensacarcin biosynthesis gene cluster by selective deletion and complementation in a heterologous expression system. Three luciferase-like monooxygenases are involved in later steps of mensacarcin biosynthesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Koutsoudakis G.,University Pompeu Fabra | Koutsoudakis G.,Hospital Clinic | Romero-Brey I.,University of Heidelberg | Berger C.,University of Heidelberg | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims Soraphen A (SorA) is a myxobacterial metabolite that inhibits the acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme in lipid biosynthesis. We have previously identified SorA to efficiently inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of SorA and analogues to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods SorA inhibition capacity was evaluated in vitro using cell culture derived HCV, HCV pseudoparticles and subgenomic replicons. Infection studies were performed in the hepatoma cell line HuH7/Scr and in primary human hepatocytes. The effects of SorA on membranous web formation were analysed by electron microscopy. Results SorA potently inhibits HCV infection at nanomolar concentrations. Obtained EC50 values were 0.70 nM with a HCV reporter genome, 2.30 nM with wild-type HCV and 2.52 nM with subgenomic HCV replicons. SorA neither inhibited HCV RNA translation nor HCV entry, as demonstrated with subgenomic HCV replicons and HCV pseudoparticles, suggesting an effect on HCV replication. Consistent with this, evidence was obtained that SorA interferes with formation of the membranous web, the site of HCV replication. Finally, a series of natural and synthetic SorA analogues helped to establish a first structure-activity relationship. Conclusions SorA has a very potent anti-HCV activity. Since it also interferes with the membranous web formation, SorA is an excellent tool to unravel the mechanism of HCV replication. © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver.


PubMed | Helmholtz Institute For Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Hannover Medical School, University Pompeu Fabra, University of Heidelberg and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of hepatology | Year: 2015

Soraphen A (SorA) is a myxobacterial metabolite that inhibits the acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a key enzyme in lipid biosynthesis. We have previously identified SorA to efficiently inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of SorA and analogues to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.SorA inhibition capacity was evaluated in vitro using cell culture derived HCV, HCV pseudoparticles and subgenomic replicons. Infection studies were performed in the hepatoma cell line HuH7/Scr and in primary human hepatocytes. The effects of SorA on membranous web formation were analysed by electron microscopy.SorA potently inhibits HCV infection at nanomolar concentrations. Obtained EC50 values were 0.70 nM with a HCV reporter genome, 2.30 nM with wild-type HCV and 2.52 nM with subgenomic HCV replicons. SorA neither inhibited HCV RNA translation nor HCV entry, as demonstrated with subgenomic HCV replicons and HCV pseudoparticles, suggesting an effect on HCV replication. Consistent with this, evidence was obtained that SorA interferes with formation of the membranous web, the site of HCV replication. Finally, a series of natural and synthetic SorA analogues helped to establish a first structure-activity relationship.SorA has a very potent anti-HCV activity. Since it also interferes with the membranous web formation, SorA is an excellent tool to unravel the mechanism of HCV replication.


Yan S.,University of Vienna | Brecker L.,University of Vienna | Jin C.,Gothenburg University | Titz A.,University of Vienna | And 6 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2015

The N-glycosylation of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be highly variable and rather complex; it is an example to contradict the existing impression that "simple" organisms possess also a rather simple glycomic capacity. In previous studies in a number of laboratories, N-glycans with up to four fucose residues have been detected. However, although the linkage of three fucose residues to the N,N′-diacetylchitobiosyl core has been proven by structural and enzymatic analyses, the nature of the fourth fucose has remained uncertain. By constructing a triple mutant with deletions in the three genes responsible for core fucosylation (fut-1, fut-6 and fut-8), we have produced a nematode strain lacking products of these enzymes, but still retaining maximally one fucose residue on its N-glycans. Using mass spectrometry and HPLC in conjunction with chemical and enzymatic treatments as well as NMR, we examined a set of α-mannosidase-resistant N-glycans. Within this glycomic subpool, we can reveal that the core β-mannose can be trisubstituted and so carries not only the ubiquitous α1,3- and α1,6-mannose residues, but also a "bisecting" β-galactose, which is substoichiometrically modified with fucose or methylfucose. In addition, the α1,3-mannose can also be α-galactosylated. Our data, showing the presence of novel N-glycan modifications, will enable more targeted studies to understand the biological functions and interactions of nematode glycans. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Miralinaghi P.,Saarland University | Miralinaghi P.,Hamedan University of Medical science | Schmitt C.,Saarland University | Hartmann R.W.,Helmholtz Institute For Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland | And 2 more authors.
ChemMedChem | Year: 2014

The inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1), which catalyzes the conversion of estrone into the potent estrogen receptor agonist estradiol (E2), is discussed as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of estrogen-dependent diseases. Because the reduction of E2 would be basically limited to the target tissues, this approach is expected to cause fewer side effects than the currently employed antihormonal therapies. Recently, we reported on 6-hydroxybenzothiazole ketones as a new class of 17β-HSD1 inhibitors with a notable activity/selectivity profile. In an attempt to further optimize these parameters, we modified the benzothiazole core by a systematic bioisosteric replacement. Thus, we were able to identify a new 6-hydroxybenzothiophene derivative that displayed stronger inhibition of 17β-HSD1 (IC50=13 nM) and that was also more selective than a benzothiazole analog. Using ab initio calculations, we found that the higher potency of the 6-hydroxybenzothiophene derivative was probably due to more favorable conformational preorganization of the scaffold for binding to the enzyme. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Schmitt C.,Saarland University | Miralinaghi P.,Saarland University | Mariano M.,Saarland University | Hartmann R.W.,Saarland University | And 2 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

Dysregulated usage of pre-mRNA splicing sites contributes to the progression of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and viral infections. Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins play major roles in the splice site recognition and are largely regulated by phosphorylation. This provides an option for the pharmacological correction of aberrant splicing by inhibiting the relevant kinases. Cdc2-like kinases (Clks) and dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (Dyrks) were both reported to phosphorylate numerous SR proteins in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we describe the discovery of new selective dual Clk/Dyrk1A/1B inhibitors, which are able to modulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing of model gene transcripts in cells with submicromolar potencies. The optimization process yielded a dual Clk and Dyrk inhibitor with exceptionally high ligand efficiency. Our results suggested that dual inhibition of both Clk1 and Dyrk1A increased the efficacy of pre-mRNA splicing modulation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Schmitt C.,Saarland University | Kail D.,PharmBioTec GmbH | Mariano M.,Saarland University | Empting M.,Helmholtz Institute For Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The Dyrk family of protein kinases is implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Pharmacological inhibitors were mainly described for Dyrk1A so far, but in fewer cases for Dyrk1B, Dyrk2 or other isoforms. Herein, we report the development and optimization of 2,4-bisheterocyclic substituted thiophenes as a novel class of Dyrk inhibitors. The optimized hit compounds displayed favorable pharmacokinetic properties and high ligand efficiencies, and inhibited Dyrk1B in intact cells. In a larger selectivity screen, only Clk1 and Clk4 were identified as additional targets of compound 48, but no other kinases frequently reported as off-targets. Interestingly, Dyrk1A is implicated in the regulation of alternative splicing, a function shared with Clk1/Clk4; thus, some of the dual inhibitors might be useful as efficient splicing modulators. A further compound (29) inhibited Dyrk1A and 1B with an IC50 of 130 nM, showing a moderate selectivity over Dyrk2. Since penetration of the central nervous system (CNS) seems possible based on the physicochemical properties, this compound might serve as a lead for the development of potential therapeutic agents against glioblastoma. Furthermore, an inhibitor selective for Dyrk2 (24) was also identified, which might be are suitable as a pharmacological tool to dissect Dyrk2 isoform-mediated functions. © 2014 Schmitt et al.

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