Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research

Darmstadt, Germany

The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research is a federally and state co-funded heavy ion research center in the Arheilgen suburb of Darmstadt, Germany. It was founded in 1969 as the Society for Heavy Ion Research , abbreviated GSI, to conduct research on and with heavy-ion accelerators. It is the only major research center in the State of Hesse. The current director of GSI is Horst Stöcker who succeeded Walter F. Henning in August 2007.The laboratory performs basic and applied research in physics and related natural science disciplines. Main fields of study include plasma physics, atomic physics, nuclear structure and reactions research, biophysics and medical research. The lab is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.Shareholders are the German Federal Government and the State of Hesse . As a member of the Helmholtz Association, the current name was given to the facility on 7 October 2008 in order to bring it sharper national and international awareness. Wikipedia.

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Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Date: 2016-10-24

A method for creating a first data set for modifying an irradiation plan parameter data set used for controlling an irradiation system for irradiating a target volume in an irradiation volume using an ion beam includes defining a sensitive volume within the biological material to be irradiated, determining a fluence distribution of the ion beam, determining a microscopic dose distribution of the ion beam, determining, from the microscopic dose distribution of the ion beam, a spatial microscopic damage distribution of the ion beam, determining an expected value for a number of correlated damage events in a sub-micrometer range in the sensitive volume from the spatial microscopic damage distribution of the ion beam in the sensitive volume, determining the effect of the ion beam on the biological material, and storing data that indicate the effect of the ion beam on the material.

Durante M.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Cucinotta F.A.,NASA
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

The health risks of space radiation are arguably the most serious challenge to space exploration, possibly preventing these missions due to safety concerns or increasing their costs to amounts beyond what would be acceptable. Radiation in space is substantially different from Earth: high-energy (E) and charge (Z) particles (HZE) provide the main contribution to the equivalent dose in deep space, whereas γ rays and low-energy α particles are major contributors on Earth. This difference causes a high uncertainty on the estimated radiation health risk (including cancer and noncancer effects), and makes protection extremely difficult. In fact, shielding is very difficult in space: the very high energy of the cosmic rays and the severe mass constraints in spaceflight represent a serious hindrance to effective shielding. Here the physical basis of space radiation protection is described, including the most recent achievements in space radiation transport codes and shielding approaches. Although deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes can now describe well the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, more accurate double-differential nuclear cross sections are needed to improve the codes. Energy deposition in biological molecules and related effects should also be developed to achieve accurate risk models for long-term exploratory missions. Passive shielding can be effective for solar particle events; however, it is limited for galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Active shielding would have to overcome challenging technical hurdles to protect against GCR. Thus, improved risk assessment and genetic and biomedical approaches are a more likely solution to GCR radiation protection issues. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Schardt D.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Elsasser T.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Schulz-Ertner D.,MVZ Radiologisches Institute
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Neff T.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The radiative capture cross sections for the He3(α,γ)Be7 and H3(α,γ)Li7 reactions are calculated in the fully microscopic fermionic molecular dynamics approach using a realistic effective interaction that reproduces the nucleon-nucleon scattering data. At large distances bound and scattering states are described by antisymmetrized products of He4 and He3/H3 ground states. At short distances the many-body Hilbert space is extended with additional many-body wave functions needed to represent polarized clusters and shell-model-like configurations. Properties of the bound states are described well, as are the scattering phase shifts. The calculated S factor for the He3(α,γ)Be7 reaction agrees very well with recent experimental data in both absolute normalization and energy dependence. In the case of the H3(α,γ)Li7 reaction the calculated S factor is larger than available experimental data by about 15%. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2016

Cancer is a major social problem, and it is the main cause of death between the ages 45-65 years. In the treatment of cancer, radio therapy (RT) plays an essential role. RT with hadrons (protons and light ions), due to their unique physical and radiobiological properties, offers several advantages over photons for specific cancer types. In particular, they penetrate the patient with minimal diffusion, they deposit maximum energy at the end of their range, and they can be shaped as narrow focused and scanned pencil beams of variable penetration depth. Although significant progress has been made in the use of particle beams for cancer treatment, an extensive research and development program is still needed to maximize the healthcare benefits from these therapies. The Optimization of Medical Accelerators (OMA) is the aim of the here-proposed European Training Network, in line with the requirements of the ECs Medical Exposure Directive. OMA joins universities, research centers and clinical facilities with industry partners to address the challenges in treatment facility design and optimization, numerical simulations for the development of advanced treatment schemes, and in beam imaging and treatment monitoring. The proposed R&D program ranges from life sciences (oncology, cell and micro biology and medical imaging.), physics and accelerator sciences, mathematics and IT, to engineering. It is hence ideally suited for an innovative training of early stage researchers. By closely linking all above research areas, OMA will provide an interdisciplinary education to its Fellows. This will equip them with solid knowledge also in research areas adjacent to their core research field, as well as with business competences and hence give them a perfect basis for a career in research.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-COG | Phase: ERC-CoG-2015 | Award Amount: 1.87M | Year: 2016

The main goal of ASTRUm is to employ stored and cooled radioactive ions for forefront nuclear astrophysics research. Four key experiments are proposed to be conducted at GSI in Darmstadt, which holds the only facility to date capable of storing highly charged radionuclides in the required element and energy range. The proposed experiments can hardly be conducted by any other technique or method. The weak decay matrix element for the transition between the 2.3 keV state in 205Pb and the ground state of 205Tl will be measured via the bound state beta decay measurement of fully ionized 205Tl81\. This will provide the required data to determine the solar pp-neutrino flux integrated over the last 5 million years and will allow us to unveil the astrophysical conditions prior to the formation of the solar system. The measurements of the alpha-decay width of the 4.033 MeV excited state in 19Ne will allow us to constrain the conditions for the ignition of the rp-process in X-ray bursters. ASTRUm will open a new field by enabling for the first time measurements of proton- and alpha-capture reaction cross-sections on radioactive nuclei of interest for the p-process of nucleosynthesis. Last but not least, broad band mass and half-life measurements in a ring is the only technique to precisely determine these key nuclear properties for nuclei with half-lives as short as a millisecond and production rates of below one ion per day. To accomplish these measurements with highest efficiency, sensitivity and precision, improved detector systems will be developed within ASTRUm. Possible applications of these systems go beyond ASTRUm objectives and will be used in particular in accelerator physics. The instrumentation and experience gained within ASTRUm will be indispensable for planning the future, next generation storage ring projects, which are launched or proposed at several radioactive ion beam facilities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2017

Antiprotons, stored and cooled at low energies in a storage ring or at rest in traps, are highly desirable for the investigation of basic questions on fundamental interactions, the static structure of antiprotonic atoms, CPT tests by high-resolution spectroscopy on antihydrogen, as well as gravity experiments. Antimatter experiments are at the cutting edge of science. They are, however, very difficult to realize and have been limited by the performance of the only existing facility in the world, the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. The Extra Low Energy Antiproton ring (ELENA) will be a critical upgrade to this unique facility and commissioned from summer 2016. This will significantly enhance the beam quality and enable new experiments. To fully exploit the discovery potential of this facility and to pave the way for a vibrant long-term physics program with low energy antiprotons, advances are urgently required in numerical tools that can adequately model beam transport, life time and interaction, beam diagnostics tools and detectors that can fully characterize the beams properties, as well as in into advanced experimental techniques for improved precision and novel experiments that exploit the enhanced beam quality that ELENA will provide. AVA is a new European training network between universities, research centers and industry that will carry out an interdisciplinary and cross-sector antimatter research and training program for a cohort of 15 Fellows. It targets new scientific and technical developments and aims at boosting the career prospects of all trainees.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2016

ENSAR2 is the integrating activity for European nuclear scientists who are performing research in three of the major subfields defined by NuPECC: Nuclear Structure and Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Tools and Applications. It proposes an optimised ensemble of Networking (NAs), Joint Research (JRAs) and Transnational Access Activities (TAs), which will ensure qualitative and quantitative improvement of the access provided by the current ten infrastructures, which are at the core of this proposal. The novel and innovative developments that will be achieved by the RTD activities will also assure state-of-the-art technology needed for the new large-scale projects. Our community of nuclear scientists profits from the diverse range of world-class research infrastructures all over Europe that can supply different ion beams and energies and, with ELI-NP, high-intensity gamma-ray beams up to 20 MeV. We have made great effort to make the most efficient use of these facilities by developing the most advanced and novel equipment needed to pursue their excellent scientific programmes and applying state-of-the-art developments to other fields and to benefit humanity (e.g. archaeology, medical imaging). Together with multidisciplinary and application-oriented research at the facilities, these activities ensure a high-level socio-economic impact. To enhance the access to these facilities, the community has defined a number of JRAs, using as main criterion scientific and technical promise. These activities deal with novel and innovative technologies to improve the operation of the facilities. The NAs of ENSAR2 have been set-up with specific actions to strengthen the communities coherence around certain resarch topics and to ensure a broad dissemination of results and stimulate multidisciplinary, application-oriented research and innovation at the Research Infrastructures.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2015

LASERLAB-EUROPE is the European consortium of major national laser research infrastructures, covering advanced laser science and applications in most domains of research and technology, with particular emphasis on areas with high industrial and social impact, such as bio- and nanophotonics, material analyses, biology and medicine. Recently the field of advanced lasers has experienced remarkable advances and breakthroughs in laser technologies and novel applications. Laser technology is a key innovation driver for highly varied applications and products in many areas of modern society, thereby substantially contributing to economic growth. Through its strategic approach, LASERLAB-EUROPE aims to strengthen Europes leading position and competitiveness in this key area. It facilitates the coordination of laser research activities within the European Research Area by integrating major facilities in most European member states with a long-term perspective and providing concerted and efficient services to researchers in science and industry. The main objectives of LASERLAB-EUROPE are to: promote, in a coordinated way and on a European scale, the use of advanced lasers and laser-based technologies for research and innovation, serve a cross-disciplinary user community, from academia as well as from industry, by providing access to a comprehensive set of advanced laser research installations, including two free-electron laser facilities, increase the European basis of human resources in the field of lasers by training new users, including users in new domains of science and technology and from geographical regions of Europe where laser user communities are still less developed, improve human and technical resources through technology exchange and sharing of expertise among laser experts and operators across Europe, and through coordinated Joint Research Activities enabling world-class research, innovations and applications beyond the present state-of-the-art.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRADEV-03-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.88M | Year: 2017

The objectives of the IDEAAL Project are to explore all possibilities to develop GANIL infrastructure, with its new ESFRI SPIRAL2 facility, in order to ensure its long-term sustainability as one of the premiere European research institutes for nuclear physics, interdisciplinary sciences and related applications. The first objective of the IDEAAL Project is to enlarge the present GANIL membership to include academic institutions and private funding partners. This enlargement goes hand-in-hand with a reinforcement of the involvement of the current institutional funders and academic users of GANIL-SPIRAL2 in the decision-making process and management of the facility. The second objective of IDEAAL is to enhance the excellence of access to the infrastructure by optimizing support to the users, access policy, assessment on the cost of access to the facilities and to data, improvement of the performance capabilities as well as exchange and training of personnel with associated partners. Innovation is the third objective of IDEAAL. With the new facility SPIRAL2, it is essential to encourage industrial users of the uniqueness of this new machine for their research and applications and to allow them to develop new experimental tools at the existing GANIL facilities. Access provision dedicated to industrial users will greatly enhance their experience and increase their interest and trust in GANIL-SPIRAL2. In parallel, new ideas and topics for technology transfer will be clearly identified. The increase of innovation potential of GANIL will also be evaluated. These three objectives must be supported by a strong communication and outreach policy towards members and funding partners, users and the layman. This is the fourth objective of the project. Fulfilling all of these four objectives will allow a well-organized, highly efficient and sustainable development of the current GANIL structure.

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