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Darmstadt, Germany

The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research is a federally and state co-funded heavy ion research center in the Arheilgen suburb of Darmstadt, Germany. It was founded in 1969 as the Society for Heavy Ion Research , abbreviated GSI, to conduct research on and with heavy-ion accelerators. It is the only major research center in the State of Hesse. The current director of GSI is Horst Stöcker who succeeded Walter F. Henning in August 2007.The laboratory performs basic and applied research in physics and related natural science disciplines. Main fields of study include plasma physics, atomic physics, nuclear structure and reactions research, biophysics and medical research. The lab is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.Shareholders are the German Federal Government and the State of Hesse . As a member of the Helmholtz Association, the current name was given to the facility on 7 October 2008 in order to bring it sharper national and international awareness. Wikipedia.

Hammer H.-W.,University of Bonn | Nogga A.,Julich Research Center | Schwenk A.,TU Darmstadt | Schwenk A.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

It is often assumed that few- and many-body systems can be accurately described by considering only pairwise two-body interactions of the constituents. We illustrate that three- and higher-body forces enter naturally in effective field theories and are especially prominent in strongly interacting quantum systems. We focus on three-body forces and discuss examples from atomic and nuclear physics. In particular, the importance and the challenges of three-nucleon forces for nuclear structure and reactions, including applications to astrophysics and fundamental symmetries, are highlighted. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Heuser J.M.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2013

The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryon densities. The experiment is being laid out for nuclear collision rates from 0.1 to 10 MHz to access a unique wide spectrum of probes, including rarest particles like hadrons containing charm quarks, or multi-strange hyperons. The physics programme will be performed with ion beams of energies up to 45 GeV/nucleon. Those will be delivered by the SIS-300 synchrotron at the completed FAIR accelerator complex. Parts of the research programme can already be addressed with the SIS-100 synchrotron at the start of FAIR operation in 2018. The initial energy range of up to 11 GeV/nucleon for heavy nuclei, 14 GeV/nucleon for light nuclei, and 29 GeV for protons, allows addressing the equation of state of compressed nuclear matter, the properties of hadrons in a dense medium, the production and propagation of charm near the production threshold, and exploring the third, strange dimension of the nuclide chart.In this article we summarize the CBM physics programme, the preparation of the detector, and give an outline of the recently begun construction of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Summerer K.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, is shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the picobarn range. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Litvinova E.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

For the first time, the shell structure of open-shell nuclei is described in a fully self-consistent extension of the covariant energy density functional theory. The approach implies quasiparticle-vibration coupling for superfluid systems. A one-body Dyson equation formulated in the doubled quasiparticle space of Dirac spinors is solved for nucleonic propagators in tin isotopes which represent the reference case: The obtained energies of the single-quasiparticle levels and their spectroscopic amplitudes are in agreement with data. The model is applied to describe the shell evolution in a chain of superheavy isotopes 292 ,296 ,300 ,304120 and finds a rather stable proton spherical shell closure at Z=120. An interplay of the pairing correlations and the quasiparticle-phonon coupling gives rise to a smooth evolution of the neutron shell gap between N=172 and N=184 neutron numbers. Vibrational corrections to the alpha-decay energies reach several hundred keV and can be either positive or negative, thus also smearing out the shell effects. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Durante M.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Cucinotta F.A.,NASA
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

The health risks of space radiation are arguably the most serious challenge to space exploration, possibly preventing these missions due to safety concerns or increasing their costs to amounts beyond what would be acceptable. Radiation in space is substantially different from Earth: high-energy (E) and charge (Z) particles (HZE) provide the main contribution to the equivalent dose in deep space, whereas γ rays and low-energy α particles are major contributors on Earth. This difference causes a high uncertainty on the estimated radiation health risk (including cancer and noncancer effects), and makes protection extremely difficult. In fact, shielding is very difficult in space: the very high energy of the cosmic rays and the severe mass constraints in spaceflight represent a serious hindrance to effective shielding. Here the physical basis of space radiation protection is described, including the most recent achievements in space radiation transport codes and shielding approaches. Although deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes can now describe well the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, more accurate double-differential nuclear cross sections are needed to improve the codes. Energy deposition in biological molecules and related effects should also be developed to achieve accurate risk models for long-term exploratory missions. Passive shielding can be effective for solar particle events; however, it is limited for galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Active shielding would have to overcome challenging technical hurdles to protect against GCR. Thus, improved risk assessment and genetic and biomedical approaches are a more likely solution to GCR radiation protection issues. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source

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