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Kaye J.A.,Gladstone | Finkbeiner S.,Gladstone | Finkbeiner S.,University of California at San Francisco | Finkbeiner S.,Taube Koret Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research | Finkbeiner S.,Hellman Family Foundation Program in Alzheimers Disease Research
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Huntington's disease (HD) causes severe motor dysfunction, behavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment and death. Investigations into its molecular pathology have primarily relied on murine tissues; however, the recent discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened new possibilities to model neurodegenerative disease using cells derived directly from patients, and therefore may provide a human-cell-based platform for unique insights into the pathogenesis of HD. Here, we will examine the practical implementation of iPSCs to study HD, such as approaches to differentiate embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or iPSCs into medium spiny neurons, the cell type most susceptible in HD. We will explore the HD-related phenotypes identified in iPSCs and ESCs and review how brain development and neurogenesis may actually be altered early, before the onset of HD symptoms, which could inform the search for drugs that delay disease onset. Finally, we will speculate on the exciting possibility that ESCs or iPSCs might be used as therapeutics to restore or replace dying neurons in HD brains. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Nakamura K.,University of California at San Francisco | Nakamura K.,Gladstone | Nemani V.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Azarbal F.,University of California at San Francisco | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

The protein α-synuclein has a central role in Parkinson disease, but the mechanism by which it contributes to neural degeneration remains unknown. We now show that the expression of α-synuclein in mammalian cells, including neurons in vitro and in vivo, causes the fragmentation of mitochondria. The effect is specific for synuclein, with more fragmentation by α- than β- or γ-isoforms, and it is not accompanied by changes in the morphology of other organelles or in mitochondrial membrane potential. However, mitochondrial fragmentation is eventually followed by a decline in respiration and neuronal death. The fragmentation does not require the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and involves a direct interaction of synuclein with mitochondrial membranes. In vitro, synuclein fragments artificial membranes containing the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin, and this effect is specific for the small oligomeric forms of synuclein. α-Synuclein thus exerts a primary and direct effect on the morphology of an organelle long implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Miller J.,Gladstone | Miller J.,Taube Koret Center for Huntingtons Disease Research | Miller J.,Hellman Family Foundation Program in Alzheimers Disease Research | Miller J.,University of California at San Francisco | And 76 more authors.
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2011

Polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches exceeding a threshold length confer a toxic function to proteins that contain them and cause at least nine neurological disorders. The basis for this toxicity threshold is unclear. Although polyQ expansions render proteins prone to aggregate into inclusion bodies, this may be a neuronal coping response to more toxic forms of polyQ. The exact structure of these more toxic forms is unknown. Here we show that the monoclonal antibody 3B5H10 recognizes a species of polyQ protein in situ that strongly predicts neuronal death. The epitope selectively appears among some of the many low-molecular-weight conformational states assumed by expanded polyQ and disappears in higher-molecular-weight aggregated forms, such as inclusion bodies. These results suggest that protein monomers and possibly small oligomers containing expanded polyQ stretches can adopt a conformation that is recognized by 3B5H10 and is toxic or closely related to a toxic species. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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