Koukouvinos G.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research |
Metheniti A.,Hellenic Police |
Karachaliou C.-E.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research |
Goustouridis D.,ThetaMetrisis S.A. |
And 9 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2017
A label-free biosensor based on white light reflectance spectroscopy for the determination of PSA as semen indicator in forensic samples is presented. The sensor is based on a two-step immunoassay which employs the same polyclonal anti-PSA antibody as capture and detection antibody followed by reaction with streptavidin as a signal enhancement step. The whole assay time was set to 10 min; 5 min reaction of immobilized antibody with the PSA calibrators or the samples, 3 min reaction with the biotinylated anti-PSA antibody and 2 min reaction with streptavidin. Following this protocol, a detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL was achieved and the assay's linear response range extended up to 500 ng/mL. Thus, taking into account the quantification limit of 1.0 ng/mL and the average PSA concentration in semen (0.2–5.5 mg/mL), semen quantities of a few nanoliters could be detected. The accuracy of the sensor developed was demonstrated through recovery (% recovery ranged from 89.6 to 106) and semen dilution experiments. A linear correlation was found for semen dilutions ranging from 5000 to 360,000. The lack of interference by other bodily fluids was confirmed by analysing stains of blood, urine and saliva prior to and after the addition of semen. Finally, the sensor was evaluated by analysing 51 forensic casework samples which were also analysed with a semi-quantitative membrane strip test (Seratec® PSA), through microscopic detection of spermatozoa, and male DNA identification through detection of Y chromosome. The results obtained with the sensor were in excellent agreement with those provided by an immunoradiometric assay kit (PSA-RIACT) and in complete agreement with the findings using the membrane strip assay, spermatozoa and Y chromosome detection. The excellent analytical performance and small size of the instrument make the sensor developed an attractive tool for use in forensic evidence screening for semen detection. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Purps J.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin |
Siegert S.,University of Cologne |
Willuweit S.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin |
Nagy M.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin |
And 165 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2014
In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend toward smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent. © 2014 The Authors.
Marinos G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens |
Naziris N.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens |
Limnaios S.A.,Hellenic Police |
Drakoulis N.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Meta Gene | Year: 2014
It is well known that intelligence consists of a variety of interactional and cognitive skills and abilities (e.g. tradecraft; critical and divergent thinking; perception of foreign information). Decision making is defined as the conscious choice between given options, relating to a problem. Both genetic background and environment comprise key elements for personality characteristics of the human being. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency distribution of rs324420, rs1800497, rs363050, rs6265, rs1328674 polymorphisms known to be involved in individual personality characteristics, in 830 Greek Subjects. The study is independent from direct clinical measurements (e.g. IQ measurements; physiological tests). The population of the volunteers is described, based on genotype, sex, with the respective gene frequencies, including the Minor Allele Frequency (MAF). A potential influence of the volunteer gender with the above characteristics (based on genotypes and alleles) is examined and finally, volunteers are classified as follows: A volunteer receives +. 1, for each genotype/allele, which enhances his intelligence or his decision-making. In contrast, he receives - 1, for each genotype/allele, which relegates the individual characteristic. No statistically significant gender-characteristics correlation is observed. According to their genetic profile, a rate of 92.5%, of the volunteers may be characterized by prudence and temperance of thought, with only a small proportion of them (7.5%) may be classified as genetically spontaneous and adventurous. Regarding intelligence, the study population may lay around average and a little above it, at a rate of 96.3%, while the edges of the scale suggest only a 0.5% of the volunteers, who, although the "smartest", somehow seem to lack prudence. In conclusion, individuals with low cognitive ability may be more prudent than others and vice versa, while the "smartest" ones tend to be more risky, in decision-making. Therefore, intelligence and decision-making may, after all, be less linked to each other than expected. © 2014 The Authors.
Kondili A.,Hellenic Police |
Miniati P.,Hellenic Police
Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2011
DNA typing of forensic evidence necessary to prosecute rape cases is a routine analysis in criminal forensic casework. Prenatal samples can be used as DNA evidence for such cases by establishing their paternal origin. Herein we report two cases of sexual abuse. The first case regards a thirteen years old girl's rape that resulted in pregnancy. The girl reported the assault after four months and the only available evidence for DNA typing, at that time, was the amniotic fluid. The second case regards a sixteen years old girl's rape by her alleged father. The rape resulted in pregnancy that was terminated three to four weeks after conception. In order to extract DNA from the amniotic fluid sample, the laboratory's protocol established for DNA isolation from tissues was slightly modified. In this presentation we report the modified protocol. In addition we present our approach to process the "abortion specimen" as DNA evidence and the results of DNA analysis. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Katsaloulis P.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research |
Tsekoura K.,Hellenic Police |
Vouropoulou M.,Hellenic Police |
Miniati P.,Hellenic Police
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2013
Statistical properties of eleven Y chromosome Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers were analyzed (DYS391, DYS389I, DYS439, DYS389II, DYS438, DYS437, DYS19, DYS392, DYS393, DYS390 and DYS385) in a Greek population sample. The 200 subjects where distributed across Greece, from various Peripheries. 182 distinct haplotypes were found. To validate our results gene diversity has been calculated for the whole population, as well as for each locus individually. Genetic distance has been estimated between this population and Albanian, Egyptian, Italian and Turkish populations. The results indicate that all Y loci are useful for forensic sciences. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.