Turki F.,Paul Vahle GmbH and Co. KG |
Korner A.,Hella KGaA Hueck and Co. |
Tlatlik J.,Hella KGaA Hueck and Co. |
Brown A.,Hella Electronics Corporation
SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains | Year: 2014
Conventional charging systems for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles currently use cables to connect to the grid. This methodology creates several disadvantages, including tampering, risk, depreciation and non-value added user efforts. Loose or faulty cables may also create a safety issue. Wireless charging for electric vehicles delivers both a simple, reliable and safe charging process. The system enhances consumer adoption and promotes the integration of electric vehicles into the automotive market. Increased access to the grid enables a higher level of flexibility for storage management, increasing battery longevity. The power class of 3.7kW or less is an optimal choice for global standardization and implementation, due to the readily available power installations for potential customers throughout the world. One of the key features for wireless battery chargers are the inexpensive system costs, reduced content and light weight, easing vehicle integration. This paper demonstrates a wireless charging design with minimal component content. It includes a car pickup coil with 300 mm side length and low volume and mass 1.5 dm3 power interface electronics. After an overview of its hardware requirements, power transfer and efficiency benefits are presented, providing the anticipated horizontal and lateral deviations. An intense magnetic field is required to transfer the target power at low volumes between the transfer units. This field heats up any metal object over the transfer coil, similar to an induction oven. Consequently, the system should be powered down whenever a metal object is detected in this area. A Foreign Object Detection (FOD) design has been developed to continuously monitor the critical high field area. Device testing results are also provided. Field characteristics are verified alongside the vehicle, ensuring system safety for living beings; compliant with all applicable standards reference limits which is more challenging than the basic limits . Copyright © 2014 SAE International.
Brown A.,HELLA Electronics Corporation |
Brown A.,Corporate Center Inc. |
Nalbach M.,HELLA KGaA Hueck and Co. |
Kahnt S.,Intedis GmbH Co. KG |
Korner A.,HELLA KGaA Hueck and Co.
SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains | Year: 2016
Global CO2 reduction by 2021, according to some projections, will be comprised of multiple vehicle technologies with 7% represented by hybrid and electric vehicles (2% in 2014) . Other low cost hybrid methods are necessary in order to achieve widespread CO2 reduction. One such method is engine-off coasting and regenerative braking (or recuperation) using a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE). This paper will show that a 48V power system, compared to a 12V system with energy storage module for vehicle segments B, D and E during WLTP and NEDC, is much more efficient at reducing CO2. Passive engine-off coasting using 12V energy storage shows a CO2 benefit for practical real world driving, but, during NEDC, multiple sources of friction slow the vehicle down to the extent that the maximum benefit is not achieved. By adding active engine-off coasting at the 48V level the CO2 emissions for NEDC are improved by decreasing the rate of deceleration with a 48V electric motor for propulsion. Also important, which will be explored in more detail, are the necessary power dimensions for the major components for different electrical load profiles. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.
Rosenmayr M.,Hella Electronics Corporation |
Brown A.,Hella Electronics Corporation |
Schmidt R.,Hella Electronics Corporation
SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains | Year: 2012
Enhancements of today's Micro-Hybrids based on stop-start systems with and without coasting and energy recuperation show a positive cost-benefit and a much shorter payback period compared to more complex and expensive Full-Hybrid concepts. However, improved Micro-Hybrid functionalities have a higher demand on the vehicle's electrical power network, which cannot be covered with traditional topologies alone. To enable the advanced Micro-Hybrid features, additional energy storage elements like second lead acid batteries, double-layer capacitors or lithium-ion cell based storage systems will be integrated into the power network. This will stabilize the network and provide a reliable source of energy. To apply even further reaching measures like creeping (also called crawling), and high power recuperation, a dual voltage power network will be required. This can be achieved by adding a second voltage level to the traditional 12V power network. In order to connect power networks with different voltage levels, DC/DC converters are required. This paper will discuss the constraints of a cost-optimum topology for each power class of DC/DC converter from Micro- up to Mild-Hybrid applications and present solutions to overcome these limitations. Furthermore, the different topologies are compared in regards of their economic benefit using the total cost of ownership model. Copyright © 2012 SAE International.
Brown A.,HELLA Electronics Corporation |
Kotori D.,HELLA Electronics Corporation
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013
Current significant challenges in the automotive industry for increasing fuel economy and reducing CO2 emissions remain with traditional combustion engines. Moderately small increases in fuel efficiency lead to major reductions in CO2 emissions, primarily due to large production volumes utilizing incremental fuel saving technologies. Enhancements of today's vehicle powertrains, including micro-hybrids and mild-hybrids with stop-start systems, and coasting and energy recuperation have shown a positive cost benefit and shorter payback period. This is identified when the technology is compared to more complex and expensive HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicles) and BEVs (Battery Electric Vehicles). This paper describes the development of a baseline conventional vehicle model for estimating fuel savings and CO2 reduction; it provides a benchmark for the development of fuel saving energy management technologies such as stop-start, coasting, and dual voltage architecture with regenerative braking and on-demand fuel senders. It will be shown that a stop-start system will provide a simulated 2.9% FE (Fuel Economy) benefit for the EPA unadjusted combined city/highway driving cycles. Also enhanced stop-start with aggressive coasting with engine off (<100km/hr) provides an additional benefit of 7.1%. In addition, this paper describes a case study for the development of a HIL (Hardware-In-the-Loop) simulator which makes use of the conventional baseline model. The HIL system measures fuel savings of replacing a 100% driven fuel system with an on-demand fuel delivery system. The case study will show a 40% CO2 reduction over 100% driven DC pump with a DC on-demand pump and an additional 22% CO2 reduction for the BLDC on-demand pump for the EPA city/highway driving cycles using a Mini Cooper vehicle model. Copyright © 2013 SAE International.
Scopacasa D.D.,HELLA Electronics Corporation
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014
This paper will discuss how different forms of producing supplemental vacuum have varying effects on overall vehicle efficiency. The once reliable source of vacuum from the engine is becoming increasingly scarce due to higher efficiencies from modern IC engines and the growing use of turbochargers. This need for supplemental vacuum has led to several solutions to support vacuum needs, particularly for supplying the booster for brake assist. Using simulated vehicle environments for the various forms of supplemental vacuum the behavior of each can be better understood. Using this simulated environment the actual power consumed by each method of supplemental vacuum production can be accurately measured over various drive cycles and conditions including engine speed and brake applications. Depending on the means of supplemental vacuum the respective energy consumption can be applied to a vehicle model to show the end effects of each solution on a number of levels. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.